Redness swelling and pain in the tonsillar tissue due to infection by bacteria or virus is known as tonsillitis.
Tonsils are one of the tissues of lymphatic system(part of immune system of body) which act as an indicator to infection.Tonsils are two in number present at back of throat.
When this part of lymphoid tissue get infected from bacteria or virus they get inflammed.
Palatine tonsils are two in number. Each tonsil is an oval shape mass of lymphoid tissue situated in the wall of oropharynx on lateral side in between anterior and posterior pillars.
A tonsil have two poles , an upper pole and a lower pole , and have two surfaces a medial surface and a lateral surface.
Medial surface of the tonsil is layered by epithelium known non keratinising stratified squamous epithelium. This overlying epithelium dips into the substance of tonsil in the form of crypts .Openings of these crypts are seen on medial surface of tonsil which are 12-15 in number.
Lateral surface of tonsil presents a well defined fibrous capsule . between the bed of tonsil and capsule there is loose areolar tissue , this area helps during the surgery of tonsils for making incision.
Uper pole of tonsils is seen extendiong upto soft palate.
Lower pole of the tonsil is having an attachment to the tongue.
Tonsil consist of three important parts
• Surface epithelium
• The lymphoid tissue
During infection of tonsil these three structures are involved.
Tonsillitis can occur in any age group from school going children to adults.
Rarely affect infants and old age individuals especially above age of 50.
Individuals of any race are affected by tonsillitis.
Infection is confined to tonsillar mass . Appearance of this type of infected tonsil is uniformally enlarged and red.
Infection occurs in crypts of tonsil , due to infection the crypts get filled with pus like material. On examination this is shown as spots yellow in color.
Catarrhal tonsillitis or superficial tonsillitis
This type of inflammation to tonsils occur when whole pharynx is infected as in cases of viral pharyngitis.
Acute membranous tonsillitis
This tonsillitis is mature stage of follicular tonsillitis. When discharges from different crypts coalesces to form a membrane on the surface of tonsil.
Tonsillitis infection is caused by Haemolytic Streptococcus bacteria.
Other bacteria’s which can cause tonsil infection are H. influenza or staphylococci pneumococci.
These bacteria’s can attack directly or can affect secondary to any viral infection.
• Difficult to swallow food due to pain in throat .
• Fever can be an associated symptom.
• Throat is sore.
• If infection travels upto eustachian tube (ear) and can cause complication acute otitis media due to which pain in ear is present.
• Constipation along with abdominal pain due to association of mesentric lymphadenitis.
• Weakness and debility.
• Coating of tongue and offensive breath.
• On examination of throat tonsils are seen red and swollen . sometimes yellow spots are also seen with pus like discharge.
• Lymph nodes on external neck especially juglodigastric nodes are enlarged and painful.
• On examination membrane on tonsil can be seen if it is membranous tonsillitis.
• Tonsillitis is detected by doctor on examination of throat which is seen red and inflamed.
• Complete blood cell count.
• Strep test
• WBC’S , platelet count , ESR help to identify the infection.
Rarely there may be dehydration or kidney failure due to difficulty of swallowing, or difficult respiration due to blockage of airways in swelling.
Tonsils can progress to an abscess if infected is recurrent and not treated timely.
If infection grows more and goes untreated can complicate to septicemia.
If infection is recurrent swallowing is difficult and this indicate to removal of tonsils is must.
• Cervical abscess
• Pararpharyngeal abscess
• Chronic tonsillitis
• Acute otitis media
• Rheumatic fever
• Peritonsillar abcess
• Acute glomerulonephritis
• Subacute bacterial endocardritis
• Antibiotics during acute stage of infection.
• Antipyretics when fever is present (paracetamol).
• Pencillin and amoxicillin.
• Chronic cases treated with tonsillectomy.
• Warm salt water gargles also help.
• Adopt healthy eating habits.
• Wash hands before eating to avoid infection of bacteria.
• Cover the food products.
• Gargles are also helpful to avoid progress of infection.
•Throat swollen, appearance of throat is puffy, fiery red.
•Ulcers on tonsils.
•Pain in throat is stinging and constricted.
•There is sensation of fishbone in throat.
•Tonsils swollen, red and inflamed.
•Membranes of throat are glossy.
•Patient takes cold easily.
•Pain in throat on swallowing, worse on empty swallowing.
•Swelling of tonsils and submaxillary glands.
•Suppuration in tonsils on every cold.
•Feeling of plug in throat.
•Swallowing of liquids is easy.
•Inflammation of tonsils with pus formation.
•Tonsils swollen with much pain at root of tongue and soft palate.
•Tonsils are swollen especially on right side of throat.
•On appearance tonsils are dark red and rough to touch.
•There is feeling of lump in throat.
•Thraot feels hot , pain at root of tongue.
•Tonsils are inflamed, and enlarged; size is so large that there is difficulty to breathing.
•On appearance gray spots are seen in throat and on tonsils.
•Catarrh in Eustachian tube.
•Ulcers in mouth and fauces.
•Dry and burning sensation in mouth.
•Tonsils are swollen on right side of throat.
•Tongue is coated white.
•Tonsils on left side of throat.
•Tonsils painful on slightest touch.
•Swallowing of saliva and liquids is very painful.
•Pain in throat aggravated on taking hot liquids.
•Throat on appearance is purple in color.
•Tonsils appear purplish.
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