Diabetes Insipidus is a condition characterized by excessive thirst and excretion of large amounts of severely diluted urine, with reduction of fluid intake having no effect on the concentration of urine. It is a condition in which the kidneys are unable to conserve water.
Mainly this disease is caused by a deficiency of ADH (Anti-Diuretic Hormone) also known as vasopressin which is produced by the hypothalamus.ADH acts by increasing water permeability in collecting ducts and distal convoluted tubules.
Who Are Affected?
Most of the heredity nephrogenic DI is an X- linked disorder mostly occurs in males.
No age-related differences in central or nephrogenic DI exist.
The several forms of Diabetes Insipidus (DI) are:
• Neurogenic: Neurogenic diabetes insipidus more commonly known as central diabetes insipidus, is due to lack of vasopressin production in the brain.
• Nephrogenic: Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is due to the inability of the kidneys to respond normally to vasopressin.
• Dipsogenic: Dipsogenic DI is due to defect in or damage to the thirst mechanism, which is located in the hypothalamus.
• Gestational: It occurs only during pregnancy. It is thought to occur with excessive vasopressin production which is produced in the placenta.
The following are considered to be the cause of Central DI:
• Malignant or benign tumor of brain or pituitary
• Cranial surgery
• Head trauma
• Hypoxic encephalopathy
Following are the causes of Nephrogenic DI:
• Lithium toxicity
• Renal disease
In infants with DI, the most apparent signs may be the following:
• Growth retardation
• Weight Loss
In children, the following manifestations typically predominate:
If the condition that caused DI also damaged the anterior pituitary or hypothalamic centers that produce releasing factors, patients may present with the following:
• Excessive fatigue
• Diminished Libido
• A headache
• Dry skin
• Hair loss
• MRI of the head
• Urinary specific gravity
• Urine output
Drug therapy: Desmopressin and other drugs like carbamazepine, clofibrate, thiazides, and NSAIDs.
Monitoring the patient regularly.
Fluid replacement: Drink enough fluid to replace their urine losses.
The prognosis for patients with DI is generally excellent, depending on the underlying illness. In nephrogenic DI caused by medication (eg, lithium), stopping the medication may help to restore normal renal function.
• Diabetes mellitus
• Head trauma
• Sickle cell anemia
Not drinking enough fluids can lead to:
• Electrolyte imbalance
• Edematous swelling
• Stinging, color burning pain
• Agg: Rt. Side, Amel: Cold
• Ailments from: suppressed sexual desire, suppressed eruptions
• Corresponds to diseases of nervous origin.
• Urine is milk color.
• Ailments from- Sorrow, worry, and anxiety
• Indifferent, apathetic, poor in mental or physical force.
• Unquenchable thirst.
• Infection due to assimilative derangement
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