Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus is a condition characterized by excessive thirst and excretion of large amounts of severely diluted urine, with reduction of fluid intake having no effect on the concentration of urine. It is a condition in which the kidneys are unable to conserve water.

diabetes insipidus

 

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Mainly this disease is caused by a deficiency of ADH (Anti-Diuretic Hormone) also known as vasopressin which is produced by the hypothalamus.ADH acts by increasing water permeability in collecting ducts and distal convoluted tubules.
Who Are Affected?

Most of the heredity nephrogenic  DI is an X- linked disorder mostly occurs in males.
No age-related differences in central or nephrogenic DI exist.

Classification of Diabetes Insipidus

The several forms of Diabetes Insipidus (DI) are:
• Neurogenic: Neurogenic diabetes insipidus more commonly known as central diabetes insipidus, is due to lack of vasopressin production in the brain.
• Nephrogenic:  Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is due to the inability of the kidneys to respond normally to vasopressin.
• Dipsogenic: Dipsogenic DI is due to defect in or damage to the thirst mechanism, which is located in the hypothalamus.
• Gestational: It occurs only during pregnancy. It is thought to occur with excessive vasopressin production which is produced in the placenta.

What Cause Diabetes Insipidus

The following are considered to be the cause of Central DI:
• Idiopathic
• Malignant or benign tumor of brain or pituitary
• Cranial surgery
• Head trauma
• Hypoxic encephalopathy

Following are the causes of Nephrogenic DI:
• Lithium toxicity
• Hypercalcemia
• Hyperkalemia
• Renal disease
• Pregnancy

What Happen If You Have Diabetes Insipidus?

• Polyuria
• Polydipsia
• Nocturia

In infants with DI, the most apparent signs may be the following:
• Crying
• irritability
• Growth retardation
• Hyperthermia
• Weight Loss

In children, the following manifestations typically predominate:
• Enuresis
• Anorexia
• Fatigability

If the condition that caused DI also damaged the anterior pituitary or hypothalamic centers that produce releasing factors, patients may present with the following:
• Excessive fatigue
• Diminished Libido
• A headache
• Dry skin
• Hair loss

Investigations of Diabetes Insipidus

• MRI of the head
• Urinary specific gravity
• Urine output

Treatment of Diabetes Insipidus

Drug therapy: Desmopressin and other drugs like carbamazepine, clofibrate, thiazides, and NSAIDs.

Dietary Changes Help Diabetes Insipidus

Monitoring the patient regularly.
Fluid replacement: Drink enough fluid to replace their urine losses.

Prognosis of Diabetes Insipidus

The prognosis for patients with DI is generally excellent, depending on the underlying illness. In nephrogenic DI caused by medication (eg, lithium), stopping the medication may help to restore normal renal function.

Differential Diagnosis of Diabetes Insipidus

• Diabetes mellitus
• Hypercalcemia
• Hypokalemia
• Head trauma
• Sickle cell anemia

Complications of Diabetes Insipidus

Not drinking enough fluids can lead to:
• Dehydration
• Electrolyte imbalance

Homeopathic Remedies For Diabetes Insipidus

Apis:
• Edematous swelling
• Stinging, color burning pain
• Agg: Rt. Side, Amel: Cold
• Ailments from: suppressed sexual desire, suppressed eruptions

Phosphoric acid:
• Corresponds to diseases of nervous origin.
• Urine is milk color.
• Ailments from- Sorrow, worry, and anxiety
• Indifferent,  apathetic, poor in mental or physical force.
• Unquenchable thirst.

Uranium nitrate:
• Polyuria
• Polydypsia
• Infection due to assimilative derangement

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