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What is Dementia?

Dementia is a group of related symptoms associated with the ongoing decline of the brain and its abilities, specifically impaired intellectual and memory loss. Dementia patients may not be able to think well enough to do day to day activity e.g. getting dressed; eating food etc.

There may be a loss of ability to solve problems, control emotions, mental agitation, delusion, and hallucination. People with dementia can become apathetic or indifferent from socializing and even from family, can’t even recognize their own name or identity.

Who is prone to get affected with Dementia?

It is most common in elderly people above 80years. Approximately 7% to 8% of all people over the age of 65 may form dementia.  Others who develop dementia at an early age have a family history of dementia or a history of trauma or brain injury.

What is the Classification of Dementia?

Cortical dementia:

It is characterized where the brain damage primarily affects the brain’s outer layer or cortex causing problems with memory, language, thinking and social behavior.

Subcortical dementia: 

It affects different parts of the brain below the cortex causing changes in emotions and movement in addition to problems with memory.

Progressive dementia: 

When the condition gets worse over time, gradually interfering with more and more cognitive abilities. Common types of progressive dementia are Alzheimer’s disease, Lewy body dementia, vascular dementia.

Primary dementia: 

It is characterized where the cause is not an outcome of any other disease e.g. Alzheimer’s disease.

Secondary dementia: It is caused as result or outcome of any physical disease or injury.

What are the causes of Dementia?

• Brain injury

• Family history

• Stress

• Depression

• Endocrine abnormality.

• High blood pressure

• High cholesterol

• Diabetes

• Aging

• Smoking

• Alcoholism

• Drug abuse

• Vitamin B12 deficiency

• Thyroid function test

• Abnormal protein production

• Difficulties in blood flow to the brain.

• Subdural hematomas.

• Poisoning.

• Heart and lung problem.

• Anoxia.

• Down syndrome.

• Alzheimer’s disease.

• Atherosclerosis.

• Homocysteine blood levels (such as high amino acids etc.)

• High estrogen levels.

• AIDS dementia complex.

What are the signs and symptoms of Dementia?

Mild dementia: 

• Forgetfulness.

• Losing track of time.

• Lost in familiar places.

• Communication difficulty.

• Emotional fluctuation.

• Difficulty following directions.

• Can’t find the right words.

• Short-term memory impairment.

Moderate dementia:

• Difficulty in concentration and planning.

• Become lost at home.

•  Delusions and Hallucination.

• Difficulty in communication.

• Need help with personal care.

• Loss of self-recognition.

• Altered sleep patterns.

• Behavior changes.

• Keeps wandering and repeats the question.

• Depression.

• Periods of mental confusion.

• Reasoning and judgment difficulty.

Severe dementia:

• Unaware of time and place.

• Cannot perform even the most basic activities.

• Hallucination.

• Unable to recognizing family and friends.

• Always need someone for self-care.

• Difficulty walking.

• Behavior change with much aggression.

• Periods of mental confusion.

• Change in personality and mood.

• Difficulty in saying the right words.

• Reasoning and judgment difficulty.

What are the investigations advised in cases of Dementia?

• Complete medical history.

• Complete family history.

• Complete blood count (CBC).

• RFT (Renal function test) and LFT (Liver function test).

• Blood glucose test.

• Physical examination.

• Cognitive and neuropsychological tests.

• Neurological evaluation.

• Brain scans (CT and MRI scans).

• Electroencephalogram (EEG).

• Urine test

• Cerebrospinal fluid analysis.

• Thyroid function test.

• Positive emission tomography (PET).

• Single-photon emission CT (SPECT).

What treatment is advised in cases of Dementia?

• Cognitive enhancing agents

• Tranquilizers

• Antidepressants

• Anti-anxiety medications

• Anticonvulsants

• Anti-inflammatory (in case of injuries)

What is the prognosis of Dementia?

Prognosis of dementia varies according to the stages and symptoms may get worse over time.

A person with dementia needs round the clock care and supervision to prevent them from harming themselves or others.

What is the diet and management of Dementia?

• Meditation and yoga help in keeping the body relaxed and stress-free.

• Establish daily bedtime routine organize things for the next day to reduce anxiety.

• Quit smoking and alcohol.

• Engage patients with physical and social activity.

• Keep their mind active by engaging them in small puzzles, word games, chess, drawing, painting, reading, and writing which help in delay the onset of dementia.

• Speak slowly and stay calm.

• Make home a very safe place for a patient as new changes at home can cause hazel for the patient. Keep room setting as it is.

• Don’t allow a person with dementia to drive.

• Identify and treat physical illness of patient with severe dementia as they easily harm themselves.

• Provide wristband with all information such as name, address, phone number and doctor in case it’s an emergency.

• Manage blood pressure level.

• Maintain a healthy and balanced diet.

• Omega-3 fatty acids reduce the risk of heart disease, stroke, etc.

• Keep vaccinations chart updated for the patient.

• Keep talking to persons so that they can recognize easily and can break their empathy.

• Join a support group.

What are the complications of Dementia?

• Inadequate nutrition as at some stage person with dementia reduces or stops eating and drinking.

• Loss of muscle coordination.

• Impaired memory.

• Deterioration of emotional health.

• Difficulty communication

• Delirium.

• Insomnia.

• Restless legs syndrome.

• Sleep apnea.

What the commonly indicated Homeopathic remedies for Dementia?




Nux vomica


Tarentula Hispania

For more information, you can visit ALZ and MayoClinic.


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