Corns and callus are area of thickened skin that occur in area of pressure. They are actually a normal and natural way for the body to protect itself.
Corns are hyperkeratosis of the skin, this thickening of the surface layer of the skin is in response to continuos pressure on the skin .
Corns usually form on the toes, where the bone is prominent and presses the skin against the shoe, ground or the bone. As corn becomes thick the tissue under the corn are subject to increased irritation. There, may be a deep seated nucleation, this is like a core where the corn is thickest and most painful. As corns become inflamed, there is pain and sometimes swelling and redness.
Common place where corns form are at the top surface of the toe, at the tip of the toe, and between the toes. This condition can be relived by removing the source of friction and pressure.
Callus are thickened pads of skin, usually on weight-bearing portion of they sole. They also can develop on the hand if excessive pressure and friction occurs for example: gymnastics, weightlifting etc.
Generally it affects pressure sites. Mainly over head of first and fifth metatarsal bone, heel.
Corns and callus are the result of mechanical trauma to the skin culminating in hyperplasia of the epidermis.
Most commonly, friction and pressure between the bone of the foot and ill fitting footwear cause a normal physiologic response-proliferation of the stratum corneum.
One of the primary roles of the stratum corneum is to provide a barrier to mechanical injury.
Classification of Corns And Callus
1. Hard corn (heloma durum): it is the small patch of thickness, dead skin with a packed nucleus. They are found on a dry flat skin surface.
2. Soft corn (heloma molle): this type of corn has a thinner surface and they usually stay moist even though their center is hard. Most often they are found between the toes.
• Common callus: This usually occurs due to friction on hands and feet.
• Plantar callus: these are a common type of callus found on the sole of the foot.
• Hereditary callus: These type of callus runs in the family and are usually found on the sole or palms.
Continuous pressure and friction over the prolonged period.
– Ill-fitted shoes
– Extended high heels
– Over manual labor like weightlifting/gymnastics.
• The skin may be dry, waxy transparent or a horny mass.
• Usually, pain in feet or heel on standing or walking
• Variations in temperature, especially cold, dampness which causes spontaneous pain.
• Physical examination
• One can detect corns or callus after observing the skin. In most cases, no specific tests are required.
Although corns and calluses tend to return even if they are removed, this may be less likely if you use foot padding and shoe inserts.
• Wearing well-fitted, comfortable shoes.
• Avoiding extended high-heels use
• Wearing protective gloves during manual labor or other activities like gardening.
• Apply oil, antibiotic ointment or use petroleum jelly to relieve pain.
Complications of corn and calluses are rare. People with diabetes are prone to ulcers and infections and should regularly examine their feet to identify any problems.
• Surgical removing the affected skin lesions, often it is done as a simple minor procedure.
• Antibiotics for treatment of infection.
• NSAID for relief from pain and swelling.
• Corn cap
• Corns inflamed, large horny placed on sole of feet close to the toes, thickened skin of sole and feet.
• Inflamed corn with great sensitiveness of soles on walking. Aching, stitching pain in corns.
• Best for children and young people inclined to grow fat.
• Sensitive to cold amelioration after taking cold.
• Corns with yellow discoloration.
• Multiple corns which are very painful.
• Rough, hard, dry and unhealthy skin. Thin sticky, glutinous discharge.
• Soreness and aching in corns. The horny skin on corns.
• Fidgety while sitting at work, sad, despondent; music make her weep; thinks of nothing but death.
• Acute painful corns
• Corns on the ball of first and second left toes.
• Sensitive to touch and pressure, very painful when letting leg hang down, they also throb and especially painful by flexing toe.
• Numbness in corns.
• Corns are very sensitive to tearing pains.
• Skin becomes very thick and indurated.
• painful callosities on soles, toes, and fingers; inflammation with stitching and soreness
• All complaints are chiefly right sided. Sometimes pains go from right to left.
• Amelioration from four to eight pm
• Corns painful scars, greasy skin.
• Boring tearing and stitching pain. Worse walking and standing.
• Awkward, hasty, drops things from nervous weakness. marked disposition to weep.
• Inflamed corns with stitching, burning pain, soreness of soles, stitches in the corns jerking up the feet.
• Oversensitive physically and mentally.
• Corns from pressure even if shoe presses anywhere on the skin corn develop at that site. Burning, aching, tearing & stitching pain.
• Dry, scaly, unhealthy skin; every little injury suppurates.
• The sensation of band around the bones.
• Aversion to being washed better after a bath.
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