Chikungunya is a viral disease which is transmitted to humans by the bite of Aedes aegypti mosquito. This mosquito can be found biting throughout daylight hours, though there may be peaks of activity in the early morning and late afternoon.
Aedes mosquito mainly bites in the daylight and the infection spreads mainly in the monsoon season.
Chikungunya symptoms include severe and persistent joint pain, body rash, headache, and fever. Other symptoms include muscle pain, headache, nausea, fatigue, and rash.Is It Contagious?
Chikungunya is a non-contagious disease.
Dengue and Yellow fever are also caused by the same virus. The disease shares some clinical signs with dengue and zika and can be misdiagnosed in areas where they are common.
Chikungunya virus is transmitted from humans by the bite of an infected female mosquito .
The onset of illness after the bite of an infected mosquito occurs between 4-8 days.
The disease mostly occurs in Africa, Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. However, a major outbreak in 2015 affected several countries of the Region of the Americas. Chikungunya has been identified in over 60 countries in Asia ,Africa.Europe and Americas.
Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne viral disease first described during an outbreak in southern Tanzania in 1952. It is an RNA virus that belongs to the alphavirus genus of the family Togaviridae. The name “chikungunya” derives from a word in the Kimakonde language, meaning “to become contorted”, and describes the stooped appearance of sufferers with joint pain (arthralgia).Age/sex prevalence of Chikungunya
Individuals of any age and sex can be affected by chikungunya.
Individuals of West African, east/south/central African and Asian genotypes are more prone to develop chikungunya.
Aedes aegypti mosquito (also called yellow fever mosquito) is the primary transmission agent of Chikungunya Virus.
• Fever lasting for days to few weeks, the most common symptoms are fever and joint pain.(Abrupt onset of high fever more than 100’c)
• Pain and swelling in joints, Joint Pains especially on hands and feet, wrist, ankles. Swelling present (mostly high in the morning).
• A headache, fatigue
• Nausea, vomiting
• Skin -Rashes appear within first 48 hours. Skin color is reddish, itching also present. Skin rash present mainly in the trunk, hands, and feet.
• Pain in joints may last for months
• Loss of appetite
• Ulcers in mouth
• Chikungunya disease does not often result in death, but the symptoms can be severe and disabling.
• Most patients feel better within a week. In some people, the joint pain may persist for months.
As compared to adults children are at a higher risk of developing the disease
Incubation period is usually 3-7 days.
People at risk for more severe disease include newborns infected around the time of birth, older adults (≥65 years), and people with medical conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes, or heart disease.
• Serological test, such as ELISA for confirming the presence of IgM and IgG anti –chikungunya antibodies.
• PCR – reverse transcriptase –polymerase chain reaction methods
• Using mosquito repellents creams, nets.
• Wearing long-sleeved clothes
• Emptying standing water
• Water to be kept in closed containers
• Water in flower pots to be changed every week
• Rainwater to be regularly cleared
• Avoiding water stagnation
Treatment is directed primarily at relieving the symptoms, including the joint pain using antipyretics, analgesics, and fluids.
If you are taking medicine for another medical condition, talk to your healthcare provider before taking additional medication.
Preventive Measure:o Take proper rest.
o Take proper rest.
o Drink fluids to prevent dehydration.
o Mosquito nets.
1) Joints are more painful from warmth and mare comfortable when cool.
2) Suffering increased by the slightest motion or exertion.
3) Pulsating pain aggravate by pressure.
4) Shortening of the hamstring muscles.
5) Chilliness followed by fever in the evening.
6) BURNING fever (hot hands, night sweats).
1) Morning fever, thirsty, bone pains and great soreness (intermittent fever).
2) A headache mainly 3rd and 7th
3) NAUSEA, VOMIT OF BILE.
4) Violent aching, bone breaking pains (mainly back of the neck and between the shoulders, arms, and wrists).
5) Perspiration relieves the all the symptoms except a headache.
1) Tearings and shootings in muscles(swelling present in the joints especially feet, toes).
2) Pain aggravate by movement.
3) Better at night.
China Officinalis –
1) Intermittent fever with great periodicity.
2) An intense headache during fever.
3) Prostration both physically and mentally.
4) Joints are swollen (very sensitive to touch).
5) Amelioration by hard pressure.
6) Trembling of extremities.
Rhus Toxicodendron –
1) Fever with polyarthritis(hot and painful joints with great physical restlessness).
2) Patient incline to change posture continuously or stretch the limbs.
3) Pain in joints aggravated by during rest or by initial motion.
4) Ameliorated by continue motion.
Arsenicum album –
1) High rise temperature (periodicity well marked in fever intermittent paroxysms with marked exhaustion).
2) Restlessness both mentally and physically.
3) Trembling, twitching, spasms weakness, heaviness, uneasiness present in the joints.
4) Swelling of feet (burning pains present in the joints).
5) SKIN= Itching,burning,swelling present(dry,rough,scaly,worse cold and scratch).
6) Great heat about 3 am.
7) Cold sweat.
8) Aggravation 1-2 a.m/p.m.
Arnica montana –
1) The remedy for petechial hemorrhages in the skin along with joint pains.
2) During fever shivering the whole body.
3) Heat and redness of head and face.
4) Sour sweats.
5) Joints pain mostly in back and limbs as if bruised or beaten.
6) Black and blue skin, itching, and burning.
7) Aggravation by least touch, motion.
8) Amelioration by lying down.
1) Affected joints are stiff and feverish, shifting pains aggravated at night.
2) Shifting type of pains.
3) Swelling of the joints
4) Muscular rheumatism.
5) Numbness, edema, swelling of the limbs.
Merc Sol –
1) Bone pains get worse at night with fever with profuse sweating (oily).
2) Increase thirst.
3) Excessive salivation.
4) Trembling extremities especially hands.
5) Lacerating pain in joints.
6) Maculopapular ruptions present in the skin.
7) Itching over the body aggravated by warmth on the bed.
8) Fever with gastric complaints and sweating.
1) Great remedy for children
2) Heat, redness, and burning
3) Dryness of mouth and throat
4) No thirst with fever
1) Stitching pains and sharp pains mainly big joints.
2) Fever with a full pounding pulse with severe dryness of mouth.
3) Excessive thirst.
5) Aggravated by slightest motion.
6) Amelioration by rest.
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