Psoriatic arthritis is a chronic disease characterized by a form of inflammation of the skin (psoriasis) and joints (inflammatory arthritis). Joint pain, stiffness and swelling are the main symptoms of psoriatic arthritis that can lead to damage of the joint if left untreated.
Psoriatic arthritis is an autoimmune condition. An autoimmune condition occurs when the body’s immune system mistakenly sends inflammation to normal tissue/structures. In psoriatic arthritis, the inflammation is directed toward the joints causing inflammation swelling, redness, pain and stiffness and damage.
Psoriatic arthritis can affect any join of the body but usually affects the large joints, especially those of the lower extremities, distal joints of the fingers and toes, and also can affect the back and sacroiliac joints of the pelvis.
Age/Sex prevalance affected for Psoriatic arthritis
Psoriatic arthritis usually appears in people between the ages of 30 to 50, but can begin as early as childhood. Men and women are equally at risk. Children with psoriatic arthritis are also at risk to develop.
Classification of Psoriatic arthritis
Types of Psoriatic Arthritis
Symmetric psoriatic arthritis: affects several joints in pairs on both sides of your body, like both elbows or both knees
Asymmetric psoriatic arthritis: typically affects only a few joints. They can be large or small and anywhere in your body.
Distal interphalangeal predominant (DIP) psoriatic arthritis: mainly affects small joints at the ends of the fingers and toes, as well as the nails.
Spondylitis: affects the backbone. It can cause inflammation and stiffness between your vertebrae
Arthritis mutilans: is the most severe and destructive form of psoriatic arthritis. Fortunately, it’s rare. It damages the small joints in your fingers and toes so badly that they become deformed.
Causes of Psoriatic arthritis
Cause is not exactly known. About 40 percent of patients with psoritaic arthritis have a family history of psoriasis or arthritis. Psoriatic arthritis can also result from an infection that activates the immune system.
Signs and symptoms of Psoriatic arthritis
• Painful, tender, stiff, hot, swollen and red joint.
• Morning stiffness
• Acne and nail changes (pitting or ridges formation)
Differential Diagnosis of Psoriatic arthritis
• Gout and Pseudogout
• Reactive Arthritis
• Rheumatoid Arthritis
• Septic Arthritis
Investigation of Psoriatic arthritis
To diagnose psoriatic arthritis, rheumatologists look for swollen and painful joints, certain patterns of arthritis, and skin and nail changes typical of psoriasis.
•Elevations of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein level.
•The serumSerum immunoglobulin A levels are increased
•Uric acid concentration may be increased.
Radiologic features have helped to distinguish psoriatic arthritis from other causes of arthritis.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Diet And Management for Psoriatic arthritis
• Physical activity like exercise may help you relax, ease your stress, and sleep better.
Heat and cold therapy
• Hands-on therapies, like massage, acupuncture, and acupressure
Treatment of Psoriatic arthritis
Anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs)
Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug
Arthrodesis and arthroplasty