High blood pressure in the arteries is referred to as high blood pressure or hypertension. Normal blood pressure is below 120/180, the blood pressure that ranges between 120/180 and 139/189 is referred to as pre hypertension. Blood pressure is considered is high if it is above 140/90.
Arteries are the vessels that are responsible for carrying blood from the heart to all the tissues and organs of the body.
The top number comes during measurement of blood pressure is considered as systolic blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure is the pressure in the arteries when heart contracts and blood is pumped forward into the arteries.
The bottom number is referred to as diastolic pressure. Diastolic pressure is the pressure in the arteries when heart relaxes after contraction.
Increase in the diastolic and systolic pressure raises the risk of heart diseases, hardening of the arteries, kidney diseases, stroke and eye damage. Elevation of systolic blood pressure poses a major risk to patient.
High blood pressure is often referred to as “silent killer” as often no symptoms are experienced by patient for many years until critical organs are damaged.
High blood pressure during pregnancy produces complications such as pre-eclampsia or eclampsia. Therefore regular monitoring of blood pressure in pregnant woman is required.
High salt or alcohol or caffeine intake, lack of regular exercise, obesity or smoking has adverse effect on the outlook for health of a person having high blood pressure.
Measurement of blood pressure:
Sphygmomanometer is a small, portable instrument that is used to measure blood pressure. The instrument consists of an air pump, rubber cuff and a pressure gauge. The blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). Cuff is wrapped around the upper arm and inflated with help of an air pump to a certain extant that applies pressure to block the arteries traveling through arm. Then the pressure is released gradually. During releasing the pressure a stethoscope is placed on the front of the elbow on the artery.
The pressure at which first pulsation from artery is heard is considered as systolic pressure. The pressure at which pulsation stops is considered as diastolic pressure.
Classification of Hypertension / High Blood Pressure
• Isolated high blood pressure.
When systolic pressure is above 140mm Hg and diastolic pressure is below 90. Older people are affected by isolated high blood pressure. Their pulse pressure is increased because of the stiffening of the arteries.
• White coat high blood pressure.
White coat high blood pressure is the temporary elevation of blood pressure in doctor’s clinic. It may be due to anxiety of examination. It is not clinically important.
• Borderline high blood pressure.
Mildly elevated blood pressure higher than 140/90 mm Hg is known as borderline hypertension. Person having high blood pressure have a tendency to develop high blood pressure in future.
• Genetics and a family history of hypertension
• High alcohol consumption
• High salt intake
• Vitamin D deficiency
• Medicines such as birth control pills
• Lack of physical activity
• Insufficient calcium, potassium, and magnesium consumption
• Chronic kidney disease
• Adrenal and thyroid problems or tumors
• Intense headache
• Fatigue or confusion
• Chest pains
• Breathing problems
• Irregular heartbeat
• Blood in the urine
• The systolic and diastolic numbers is recorded by sphygmomanometer. If the pressure is greater than 140/90, patient is considered to have hypertension.
• physical exam and medical history of patient and patient’s family.
• Electrocardiograms and echocardiograms to measure electrical activity of the heart and see physical structures of heart.
• Blood tests to identify possible causes of secondary hypertension and to measure renal function, cholesterol levels, electrolyte levels and sugar levels.
ACE inhibitors, ARB drugs, beta-blockers, diuretics, calcium channel blockers, alpha-blockers, and peripheral vasodilators.
• Eat healthy food
• Low salt diet
• Quit smoking and drinking
• Maintain healthy body weight
• Regular exercise
• Meditation or yoga to reduce stress.
High blood pressure is controlled by medicines and proper life style changes.
• Heart attack.
• Chronic kidney disease.
• Decreased blood supply to legs.
• Vision problems.
• Bleeding from large blood vessels.
• Blood pressure rises due to stress.
• Headache and giddiness.
• Rapid strong pulsation.
• Suited to warm blooded person who craves for sweets and salt.
• Stress related high blood pressure.
• Suited to ambitious person who focuses on development of career.
• Becomes angry on realization of failure.
• Strong desire for alcohol, pastries, bread and sweets.
• Sudden onset of symptoms.
• Worse from heat.
• Flushed face and dilated pupils.
• Rapid pulsations in various parts of body.
• Vertigo and headache with slight noise and light.
• Sensation of pulsation throughout the body.
• Heavy head, but can lay it on head.
• Can not bear any heat about head.
• Blood surges to head and heart.
• Feeling of being lost in a familiar place.
• Indicated in people who get tired easily.
• Palpitation and respiratory problems.
• Worse from lying down or ascending stairs.
• Reserved patient.
• Patient is of a nature that holds grudges for long time.
• Patient is fearful of unfavorable outcomes of harmless incidents.
• Suited to impatient and focused people.
• Strong desire for stimulants.
• Constriction in chest with constipation.
• Suited to talkative person.
• Person has a strong fear of disease, feeling of suspicion, revenge or jealousy is common.
• Flushed or purplish look.
• High blood pressure due to heart and artery disease.
• Suited to sympathetic and sensitive person.
• Flushed face, nosebleeds, palpitations, and heaviness over chest.
• Strong desire for cold and refreshing drinks.
• Degenerative problem of nerves and hardening of arteries.
• Person has a history of heavy drinking.
• Rush of blood to head.
• Flushed cheeks with pulsations in neck.
• Craving for spicy food.