The condition when there is an increased frequency of bowel movements with watery stool is called diarrhoea. When there is increased secretion of fluid into the intestine but the absorption of fluid is reduced from intestine causing rapid passage of stool called diarrhea.
There may be either acute or chronic diarrhea with different causes and treatments.
Diarrhea occurs due to derangement in the intestine that occurs as a result of the osmotic force that acts on the lumen and forces water into the gut.
Young children are more susceptible to develop diarrhea. Both males and females are equally affected by diarrhea.
• Acute viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections.
• Laxative abuse.
• Irritable bowel syndrome.
• Endocrine diseases such as hyperthyroidism or Addison’s disease.
• Inflammatory bowel disease.
• Carbohydrate or sugar malabsorption.
• Fat malabsorption
The most common symptoms include:
• Abdominal cramps.
• A sudden urge to go to the toilet.
• Loose, watery stools.
• Loss of appetite.
• A headache.
• Stool examination for white blood cells and parasites, cultures of stool for bacteria, testing of stool for the toxin of C. difficile.
• Blood tests for electrolyte abnormalities.
• Esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD) with biopsies.
• A sigmoidoscopy may also be performed.
Symptoms of diarrhea respond well to treatment. Most of the patients get well within a week.
• Dehydration occurs with excessive loss of fluids and minerals from the body due to diarrhea, with or without vomiting.
• Patients with mild dehydration may experience only thirst and dry mouth.
• Moderate to severe dehydration may cause fainting on standing low blood pressure, low urine output, severe weakness, shock, kidney failure, confusion, acidosis, and coma.
• Diarrhea with anxiety, restlessness, and exhaustion.
• Thirst for the small quantity of water frequently.
• Watery stool has the putrid odor.
• Symptoms get worse in morning.
• Mouth is very dry.
• Thirst for a large amount of cold water.
• A stool is green and frothy.
• Cutting pain around the navel.
• Profuse, gushing watery diarrhea.
• Worse in the morning and hot weather.
• Gurgling in the abdomen before the bout of diarrhea.
• Diarrhea during a stressful situation due to anticipation.
• Bloating and flatulence.
• Pain in the groin.
• Diarrhea immediately after eating and drinking.
• Oral rehydration therapy: Replace the lost fluid.
• Eating the banana, apple, dry toast and rice helps in shortening episodes of diarrhea.
• Get plenty of rest.
• Consuming probiotic yogurt helps in relieving symptoms of diarrhea.
• Emergency treatment is required in case if there is intense vomiting, bloody stools, abdominal cramps that do not get well after the bowel movement, high fever and dehydration symptoms.
• Salted rice water.
• Salted yogurt drinks.
• Vegetable and chicken soups.
• Green coconut water.
• Fresh fruit juices with added salt.
• Clean plain water can also be one of several fluids given.
• Avoid fatty food.
• Feeding must be continued as normal if the baby has diarrhea. If necessary, rehydration drinks can be added.
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