The condition when the endometrial mucosa is located outside the uterine cavity, this abnormal condition is called endometriosis. Endometrial cells are commonly found growing in fallopian tubes, ovaries or anywhere in the pelvic cavity.
Endometriosis is a benign condition.
Normally the endometrium that is within the uterus is shed periodically during menstrual cycle. But in endometriosis the endometrium is not able to exit; hence it proliferates and sheds during each cycle where it is situated in the body cavity.
The detached endometrium with degraded blood causes irritation in pain. Endometrium affects the normal of the organ where it is located.
Age / Sex of Endometriosis
Women in their reproductive years are affected by endometriosis. The condition rarely develops in postmenopausal women.
The exact cause of endometriosis remains unknown. Some of the theories that explain reasons for endometriosis are as under:
• Genetics: Women get susceptible to endometriosis if their first degree relatives are suffering from this condition.
• Estrogen hormone: If there is excess production of estrogen hormone it results in endometriosis.
• Retrograde menstruation: If the menstrual blood flows back in the fallopian tubes it results in deposition of endometrial tissue there.
Following are the signs and symptoms of endometriosis:
• Cramping pain before, during or after menstruation.
• Pain during or after sexual intercourse.
• Pain with bowel movements.
• Pelvic or low back pain that may occur at any time during the menstrual cycle.
• Pain while passing urine.
Patient may experience other symptoms, such as:
• Diarrhea or constipation (during menstruation).
• Abdominal bloating.
• Heavy excessive menstrual bleeding.
• Nausea and vomiting.
• Physical examination.
• Medical history of patient.
• MRI and CT scans.
• Biopsy of tissue obtained through laparoscopy.
The main aim is to reduce pain, limit the chances of recurrence and enhance the rate of fertility:
• NSAIDS and other pain killers like aspirin, paracetamol.
• Progestagens are also given to reduce pain.
• Hormonal therapies.
• Laparoscopic surgery all endometriosis lesions, cysts, and adhesions are removed.
• Hysterectomy. It gives relief but there are chances of recurrence.
• Iron rich food is good replaces the lost iron through bleeding. Green leafy vegetables, dried apricot, beetroot, etc.
• Vitamin B rich food e.g. broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, turnip and radishes.
• Include high fiber content in your diet.
• Drink plenty of water.
Removal of uterus, fallopian tube and both ovaries gives good results.
• Chronic pelvic pain.
• Large pelvic cysts may break.
• Rare chances of development of cancer.
• Violent stitches upwards in the vagina to the umbilicus
• Bearing down sensation as if everything would escape through the vulva
• Menses too late and scanty, irregular with sharp clutching pains.
• Pain across the abdomen as if bruised.
• Pain immediately before menses.
• Pain in the ovarian region that shoots upwards and downwards in the thighs.
• Menses profuse, dark, coagulated always irregular.
• Pain across the pelvis from hip to hip
• Bearing down cramps in the ovarian region causing the patient to bend double.
• Round, small cystic tumors in the ovaries or broad ligaments.
• Boring pain in the ovary.
• Must bend double, with great restlessness.
• Suppressed menses from wet feet, nervous debility.
• Tardy menses.
• Too late, scanty, thick, dark, clotted, intermittent
• Chilliness , nausea with a downward pressure and pain
• Pain in the back, tired feeling.
• Diarrhea during or after menses.