Cerebral Palsy

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The word cerebral refers to the area in the brain that is affected, while palsy means complete or partial muscle paralysis, accompanied by loss of sensation and uncontrollable body movements or tremors.

Cerebral palsy(CP) is caused by damage to the developing brain that deranges the brain’s ability. CP causes problems with posture, gait, muscle tone and coordination of movement.
People with cerebral palsy may have difficulty with swallowing and commonly have strabismus. People with cerebral palsy may have reduced range of motion due to muscle stiffness.

Races affected by cerebral palsy


Individuals of any race can suffer from cerebral palsy. Lower socioeconomic status and male sex may be at higher risk for cerebral palsy.
Causes of cerebral palsy

Congenital cerebral palsy results from brain injury during a foetus development in the womb. It is present at birth, although it may not be detected for months.

Maternal risk factors

•Maternal thyroid disorder, especially iodine deficiency
•Maternal seizure disorder
•Maternal severe proteinuria or high blood pressure
•Congenital malformations in the fetus
•Bleeding in third trimester
•Intrauterine growth retardation

Perinatal risk factors

•Prematurity
•Chorioamnionitis
•Birth asphyxia

Postnatal risk factors

•Infections (eg, meningitis, encephalitis)
•Intracranial hemorrhage (eg, due to prematurity, vascular malformations, or trauma)
•Hypoxia-ischemia (eg, from meconium aspiration)
•Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn

Classification of cerebral palsy

Spastic cerebral palsy
Spastic cerebral palsy is the most common type. A person with spastic CP develops stiff muscles in some parts of the body that are unable to relax. Affected joints become hard to move.

Athetoid (extrapyramidal) Cerebral Palsy
This type of CP is characterized by a mixture of hypotonia and hypertonia, which causes muscle tone to fluctuate. The main feature of athetoid cerebral palsy is involuntary movement in the face, torso and limbs.

Ataxic Cerebral Palsy
Ataxia is a condition that describes problems with balance and coordination. It is caused by damage to the cerebellum, which controls balance and coordination. People with ataxic cerebral palsy may have tremors and a reduction in muscle tone.

Mixed Cerebral Palsy
Some children have symptoms of more than one type of cerebral palsy. For example, spastic legs and problems with facial muscle control may both develop.

Symptoms of cerebral palsy

Spastic cerebral palsy
Common signs and symptoms of spastic cerebral palsy include:
• Awkward reflexes
• Stiffness in one part of the body
• Contractures
• Abnormal gait

Athetoid (extrapyramidal) Cerebral Palsy
Common signs and symptoms of athetoid cerebral palsy include:
•Stiff or rigid body
•Floppiness in the limbs
•Problems with posture

Ataxic Cerebral Palsy
Common signs and symptoms of ataxic cerebral palsy include:
•Difficulty speaking
•Problems with depth perception
•Tremors
•Spreading feet apart when walking

Investigations of cerebral palsy

Other conditions may have similar symptoms and need to be ruled out, such as a tumor or muscular dystrophy. The following tests will help the doctors carry out their diagnosis:
•Blood tests
•Cranial ultrasound
•MRI (magnetic resonance image) scan
•CT (computed tomography) scan
•An electromyogram (EMG)

Treatment of cerebral palsy

Many children go on to enjoy near-normal adult lives if their disabilities are properly managed. In general, the earlier treatment begins, the better chance children have of overcoming developmental disabilities or learning new ways to accomplish the tasks that challenge them.

Physiotherapy can maintain or improve muscle strength, balance, and motor skills, and prevent contractures.

Occupational therapy focuses on optimizing upper body function, improving posture, and making the most of a child’s mobility.

Speech and language therapy can improve a child’s ability to speak, more clearly, help with swallowing disorders, and learn new ways to communicate.

Drug Treatments
Oral medications such as diazepam, baclofen, dantrolene sodium, and tizanidine are usually used as the first line of treatment to relax stiff, contracted, or overactive muscles.

Surgery

Orthopedic surgery is often recommended when spasticity and stiffness are severe enough to make walking and moving about difficult or painful

Surgery to cut nerves. Selective dorsal rhizotomy.

Differential diagnosis of cerebral palsy

•Inherited Metabolic Disorders Overview
•Intellectual Disability
•Metabolic Myopathies
•Metabolic Neuropathy
•Traumatic Peripheral Nerve Lesions
•Tumors of the Conus and Cauda Equina
•Vascular Malformations of the Spinal Cord

Prognosis of cerebral palsy

With proper therapy, many people with cerebral palsy can lead near-normal lives. Even those with very severe disabilities can improve their condition significantly, although they will never be able to live independently.

Homeopathic Treatment of cerebral palsy

Benzinum Dinitricum-Loss of sensation in arms and legs, Legs numbs to knees and arms to elbows .

Gelsimium Sempervirens- Loss of power of muscular control, Cramp in muscles of forearm, Writer’s cramp, Excessive trembling and weakness of all limbs, Hysteric convulsions.

Genko Biloba- Mentally weak and exhausted, Poor concentration. Dullness of mind, Loss of memory and inability to solve mental tasks.Senility and Mental work is an effort to carry out.

Hypericum-Violent pain and inability to walk or to stoop after a fall on coccyx, tailbone, pain in shoulders, Cramp in calves, Pain in toes and fingers, especially in tips, Crawling in hand and feet.

Lathyrus-Heels do not touch ground when walking, sit bending forward,excessive rigidity of leg, spastic gait, knee jerks exaggerated, Cramps in leg worse in cold, Lower limbs are emaciated, Stiffness and lameness of the ankle and knees.

Nux Vomica-While walking drags his feet, legs tremble, chorea, unsteady. Arms go to sleep, numbness of arms, feel paralyzed, cramp in claves, soles, Knee joint as if dry cracking, shooting from toes to thighs, legs stiffness.