Yellow fever is an acute viral infection which is transmitted by female mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti species). It is a hemorrhagic disease and belongs to a group of hemorrhagic fevers.
It is a life-threatening disease . Incubation period is between 3-6 days .
The mosquito Aedes aegypti breeds in standing water .
They transmit the virus in three ways:
– Between monkeys.
– Monkeys to humans.
– Person to person.
Yellow fever has three stages –
During the first phase ( Infection phase ) – patient has symptoms of headache , joints and muscle pains , fever , loss of apetite , vomitting and jaundice .
During the second phase ( remmision phase ) – majority of symptoms fades away with patient proceding towards recovery .
During the third phase ( Intoxication phase ) – In this pahse some of the organs get affected such as heart , liver ( due to jaundice ), kidney failure occurs .Aprt from this coma, seizures and delirium can also happen .
Bleeding in the mouth , eyes, and gastro-intestinal tract is an blood vomitting named as -( black vomit )
Mortality of Yellow Fever
In severe cases death occurs within 7-10 days of onset of fever.
Tropical regions of Africa and South America are at higher risk of contracting yellow fever.
Yellow fever affects all age group. People working outdoor and un-immunized children are at more risk.
The causative virus of yellow fever belongs to a Flavivirus genus.Yellow fever virus is an single -stranded RNA virus belonging to Flavivirus genius .Once the virus enters the body it replicates in the regional lump nodes and spread via blood stream. It affects the bone-marrow, spleen, kidney, liver and other organs.
In yellow fever tissue damage to liver leads to jaundice and lead to hemorrhagic complications by disrupting the body’s clotting system.
Some patients remain asymptomatic while others represent mild flu-like symptoms, which are as under:
• Back pain.
• Nausea and vomiting.
• Loss of appetite.
The more serious symptoms of the disease include:
• Abdominal pain.
• Easy bruising of the skin.
• Bleeding from nose, eyes or stomach.
Virus is detected in the blood samples.
Virus culture of biopsy and autopsy tissues is positive.
Treatment is symptomatic:
• Dialysis for kidney failure.
• IV fluids.
• Blood transfusion for sever bleeding.
• Medicines to increase blood pressure.
• Oxygen administration.
Prognosis is poor. Death occurs due to various complications.
• Continuous nausea and vomiting which is black.
• Intense burning thirst for small quantity of water.
• Pulse is small, week and tremulous.
• Nausea and offensive vomiting.
• Abdominal tenderness.
• Brown tongue.
• Black urine.
• Black vomiting.
• Oozing of blood from every orifice.
• Sweat also contains blood.
• It is used as a preventive medicine.
• Collapse with coldness.
• Extremely fetid discharge.
• Great exhaustion.
• Liver failure
• Kidney failure
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