Tympanic membrane also called ear drum is a stiff but movable tissue that separates the outer and middle ear. Tympanic membrane performs the functions of – Hearing and Protection.
Ear drum ( tympanic membrane )is a thin ,oval layer of tissue lying deep in the ear canal, it receives vibrations from outer ear and transmits them to small hearing bones ( ossicles ) of middle ear .
• Ruptured tympanic membrane presents as a whole or tear in the membrane.
A ruptured eardrum can result in hearing loss and make your middle ear vulnerable to infection and injury.
Males and females both are equally affected by tympanic membrane rupture. People of all ages are affected depending upon the cause.
Individuals of any race can be affected by tympanic membrane rupture.
• Changes in ear pressure:
Any increase or decrease in the pressure inside ears may damage eardrums which occurs while travelling in plane , any underwater sports .
• Trauma to your eardrum
• Ear infection:
Infections in your middle ear may cause fluid or pus to collect behind eardrum. The fluid and pus may cause pressure in your ear and cause your eardrum to tear.
• Head trauma:
A hard slap on face or ear may also cause ear damage. Head traumas may cause a skull or facial fracture (break) in the bones near your ear. The sharp edge of a broken bone may puncture ear and cause damage to eardrum.
• Past ear surgery or procedure
• Consistent ear pain that stops suddenly
• Clear, pus-filled or bloody drainage from your ear
• Hearing loss
• Ringing in your ear (tinnitus)
• Spinning sensation (vertigo)
• Nausea or vomiting that can result from vertigo
• Tuning fork evaluation.
Tuning forks are two-pronged, metal instruments that produce sounds when struck. Simple tests with tuning forks can help your doctor detect hearing loss. A tuning fork evaluation may also reveal whether hearing loss is caused by damage to the vibrating parts of your middle ear (including your eardrum), damage to sensors or nerves of your inner ear, or damage to both.
A tympanometer uses a device inserted into ear canal that measures the response of your eardrum to slight changes in air pressure.
• Audiology exam.
• .An otoscope allows to see eardrum and the size and location of the tear. With the helpof autoscope fluid or infection inside ear can be seen.
• Laboratory tests. to detect a bacterial or viral infection of your middle ear.
• Hearing loss.
• Middle ear infection (otitis media).
• Middle ear cyst (cholesteatoma).
• Eardrum patch.
If the tear or hole in eardrum doesn’t close on its own, it is sealed with a paper patch.
If a paper patch doesn’t result in proper healing then surgery is needed. The most common surgical procedure is called tympanoplasty and myringoplasty
Sudden throbbing pain, especially in the right ear. The whole face and ear becomes red and hot. Hearing becomes abnormally acute. Pain in middle and external ear , sweeling of parotid gland , Otitis media .
This medicine is indicated in severe pain and ringing in the ear driving the victim frantic. The affected ear feels numb and stopped. The child constantly cries from pain and becomes quiet when carried in an arm, warm applications worsen pain.
Hepar sulph –
Throbbing pain in the ear, with discharge of offensive pus and deafness. Over sensitiveness, a desire for warm clothing and profuse foul or sour smelling perspiration are other features of this medicine. Warm applications to the affected ear are soothing.
Merc. Sol –
Severe pain in the ear, especially in the evening and at night, with thick, foetid, yellowish or bloody discharge. Pain is worse from warmth. A trembling body, constant profuse perspiration and intense thirst for large quantities of cold water are other pointers to this remedy.
Always keep ear dry. Avoid getting your ear wet such as when bathing or swimming. Water that gets inside ear may cause damaged eardrum to heal slowly. Wet ear may also increase risk for infection.
• Do not put anything in ear. Such as a pencil in ear. Pointed objects may damage or worsen the damage. A cotton ear bud placed deep inside your ear may also damage your eardrum. Ask your caregiver for information on how to clean your ears correctly.
• Only use ear medicines as directed by your caregiver. Use the prescribed ear drop and stop using it when your doctor says. This type of medicine may cause more damage to your ear when used for a long period.
• Try not to blow your nose. Blowing your nose may further damage your eardrum.
• Get treatment for middle ear infections.
• Protect your ears during flight. During takeoffs and landings, keep your ears clear with pressure-equalizing earplugs, yawning or chewing gum. Or use the Valsalva maneuver — gently blowing, as if blowing your nose, while pinching your nostrils and keeping your mouth closed. Don’t sleep during ascents and descents.
• Keep your ears free of foreign objects.
• Guard against excessive noise. Protect your ears from unnecessary damage by wearing protective earplugs or earmuffs in your workplace or during recreational activities if loud noise is present
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