Lagophthalmos

Lagophthalmos is defined as the inability to close the eyelids completely.

lagophthalmos

Blinking covers the eye with a thin layer of tear fluid, thereby promoting a moist environment necessary for the cells of the exterior part of the eye. The tears also flush out foreign bodies and wash them away. This is the crucial to maintain lubrication and proper eye health. If this procedure is impaired, as in lagophthalmos the eye can suffer abrasions and infections.

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Lagophtalmos leads to corneal drying and ulceration.
Pathophysiology of lagophthalmos indicates that lagophthalmos arise from a malfunction of the facial nerve.
Lagophthalmos also occur in patients with severe skin disorders such as ichthyosis.

Age/sex prevalence

Individuals of any age can be affected by this disease.
Men and women both are affected.

Races affected

Individuals of any age can be affected.

Causes

The main cause of paralytic lagophthalmos is Bell ’s palsy but it occurs secondary to the following conditions:-
• Trauma
• Infections
• Tumors

Signs and symptoms

Lagophthalmos is considered more as a symptom than as a disease.
Lagophthalmos present itself as following given features
• Eyelids do not close to cover the eye completely
• Dry eye
• Lagophthalmos can also lead to permanent loss of vision if left untreated.

Treatment

The main purpose of lagophthalmos is to prevent exposure keratitis and reestablish eyelid function.
Clinical treatment includes
• Lubricant drops
• Ointments
Blepharoplasty is the treatment for lagophthalmos.

Prognosis

Reconstruction depends on the location, extent, degree and duration of paralysis, etiology, patient’s age, health, and expectations

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