Glaucoma is a condition in which intraocular pressure raises as a result damage to optic nerve occurs that leads to progressive and irreversible vision loss.
If glaucoma is not treated on time, firstly it causes peripheral vision loss and then leads to blindness. It is one of the leading causes of blindness.
Normal intraocular fluid movement in the eye:
• Ciliary body produces a clear fluid called aqueous humor in the eye.
• Aqueous humor flows behind the iris and through the pupil or central opening in the middle of the iris, and then fills the anterior chamber, a space between the back of the clear cornea and the front of the iris.
• The aqueous exits the eye through the drainage angle inside the anterior chamber; it filters through this angle and through the sclera or white part of the eye and then joins with the network of veins outside the eye.
Types Of Glaucoma
(1) Primary open-angle glaucoma.
(POAG) It gradually reduces peripheral vision.
(2) Angle-closure glaucoma.
It produces sudden symptoms such as eye pain, headaches, and halos around lights, dilated pupils, vision loss, red eyes, nausea, and vomiting. The symptoms may last for a few hours.
(3) Normal-tension glaucoma.
Intraocular pressure remains in the normal range. Normal-tension glaucoma is a type of open-angle glaucoma that can cause optic nerve damage resulting in vision loss.
(4) Pigmentary glaucoma.
It is caused by clogging of the drainage angle of the eye by pigment that has broken loose from the iris, reducing the rate of aqueous outflow from the eye.
(5) Secondary glaucoma.
Symptoms of chronic glaucoma following an eye injury could indicate secondary glaucoma, which also may develop with presence of eye infection, inflammation, a tumor or enlargement of the lens due to a cataract.
(6) Congenital glaucoma.
These children are born with narrow angles or some other defect in the drainage system of the eye.
Females are more prone to develop glaucoma.
• The inability of internal eye structures to regulate intraocular pressure (IOP) increases its level causing glaucoma.
• Certain eye disease that increases the IOP.
• Optic nerve damage.
• Family history
• Races, especially Asians and Africans
• long-term use of steroids
• Diabetic Retinopathy
• Trauma to the eye
• Eye diseases such as Uveitis
It is usually asymptomatic. The symptoms include:
• Peripheral vision
• Color clarity decreases
• Pain in eyes
• Nausea or vomiting
• Cloudiness in the visual field
• Direct tonometry
• Air puff test
• Dilation test
• Eye drops
• Oral or IV medications to reduce pain
• Rest of the treatment depends on the case of the glaucoma
Prognosis depends on the condition of the disease.
• Open-angle-glaucoma is not curable
• Angle-closure-glaucoma needs immediate medical attention
• Congenital glaucoma has the good prognosis with surgery.
• Pain extending down the face after exposure to cold winds
• eyeball feels as if it would be forced out of the orbit
• Aggravation by motion or touch
• intense photophobia
• Throbbing headache and flushed face
• Eyes injected, pupils, dilated, fundus hyperemic and pain both in and around eye
• Throbbing, may come and go suddenly
• Aggravation in afternoon and evening
• Eyeshot and dry, sensitive to light
• Halo around eye, red predominating
• Fundus hyperaemic and hazy
• Halo around light
• Sensation as if something was pulled tightly over the eyes
• Vision impaired
• Amelioration in the twilight.
• Incipient glaucoma, with much pain in and around the eye
• Worse just before a storm
• Ameliorated after the storm commences
• Pains sharp and stabbing through the eye and head
• Worse on motion and at night
• Well indicated medicine for glaucoma.
• Eyes are sore to touch and when moving.
• Pressing, crushing, aching pain in eyes.
• Mucous membranes are all dry.
• Very well indicated medicine for eye affections.
• Deep inflammation of eyes with the haziness of the vitreous.
• Indicated for a detached retina, glaucoma and descemetisone pupil dilated and other contracted.
• Indicated for blurring and discomfort in the eyes.
• Pupils are dilated and insensible to light.
• Eyelids of the patient are heavy, a patient can hardly open them.
• Indicated for glaucoma, paresis of accommodation.
• There is profuse lachrymation from eyes.
• Patient complains of spasm of ciliary muscles with irritability after using eyes.
• Post-diphtheritic paralysis of the eye and accommodation muscles of eyes.
• There are flashes of the night and partial blindness.
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