Eosinophilia is a condition in which the eosinophil cells count exceeds the normal limit that is 0.45×109 in the peripheral blood. Eosinophils are one of the five major types of disease-fighting white blood cells.
Eosinophils circulate in the blood when their levels are high but high eosinophil concentrations may also occur at the site of an infection or inflammation. Eosinophils are the type of white blood cell. They contain particles which are filled with chemicals that help to fight the infection and play a major role in the immune mechanism of the body.
In normal conditions of body, eosinophils don’t have a large number. The body produces more of the eosinophils in response to some infections, allergic disorder, inflammation of the skin and parasitic infections or in case of some bone marrow disorders. There are some conditions in which eosinophils move outside the bloodstream and enter the other organs and tissues. Term eosinophilia is also defined as the increase of eosinophilic leukocytes in peripheral blood to more than 600 cells per microliter (µL) of blood. If the count of eosinophils in the peripheral blood is more than 1500 cells per microlitre and when this condition last for many months then it is termed as a hypereosinophilic syndrome.
There are two major roles of eosinophil in the immune system and they are as follows: Destruction of foreign substances
Eosinophils can engulf foreign substances and they engulf substances related to infection due to a parasite.
Inflammation regulation: Eosinophils help to promote inflammation and thereby plays a very important and useful role in controlling the disease site.Any Age Of People Are Affected?
There is no male and female predominance seen in patients suffering from eosinophilia. People of any age can be affected by eosinophilia.
There is no evidence of the involvement of individuals of a particular race to suffer from eosinophilia.
There are specific diseases and conditions which are responsible for the rise of eosinophil number in the blood and that are as follows:-
• Atopic dermatitis.
• Eosinophilic leukemia.
• Lymphatic filariasis.
• Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
• Ovarian cancer
• Scarlet fever
• Chronic myelogenous leukemia
• Drug allergy.
• Hay fever.
• Hodgkin’s lymphoma
• Ulcerative colitis
• Cholesterol embolism.
• Interstitial nephropathy
• Primary immunodeficiency
• Parasitic infections such as Ascariasis Trichinosis. Schistosomiasis. Fascioliasis. Paragonimiasis. Visceral larva migrans. Strongyloidiasis. Gnasthostomiasis.
• Neoplasia Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1). Adult T-cell leukemia. Gastric and lung carcinoma.
Symptoms of eosinophilia are usually that of the underlying cause-
• Eosinophilia due to asthma is marked by following symptoms such as shortness of breath, wheezing.
• In cases of parasitic infections the symptoms that are associated are as follows pain in the abdomen, diarrhea, fever, cough or rashes.
• When eosinophilia rise due to allergic reaction then symptoms are associated are rashes, itching.
• Rare symptoms associated with eosinophilia are weight loss, night sweats, lymph nodes enlargement, skin rashes, and sensation of numbness and tingling.
First of all complete physical examination is done. Full body examination is done including skin, brain, eyes, lymph nodes, lungs, heart, liver, spleen, intestines, bone and nervous system.
History taking is very important as it help to find out cause if there is some parasitic infection.
Other investigations which are helpful to find out the cause of eosinophilia are as follows
• Complete blood count.
• Chest X-ray.
• Liver function test.
• Kidney function tests.
• Serological tests for parasitic and connective tissue diseases.
• Stool examination for detection of parasitic eggs, larvae.
• Serum B12 levels in cases of myeloproliferation.
• Corticosteroids are detected to find out allergic causes.
• MRI/CT scans to detect if eosinophilia is due to any tumor.
Prognosis of eosinophilia depends upon the condition with which it is associated. Many parasitic infections when developing in a chronic form can even cause morbidity but not mortality. Timely treatment is very effective for a cure of eosinophilia.
Treatment depends upon the cause involved in producing the condition of eosinophilia. The medications that are helpful in lowering the eosinophilic levels are as follows • Corticosteroids such as prednisone are used.Surgeries for tumors are conducted depending upon the site of the tumor.
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