Inflammation of the bladder is called cystitis. It is characterized by chronic urinary urgency and frequency with discomfort which is relieved by urinating.
Cystitis is divided into two subtypes on the basis of findings at cystoscopy and bladder over-distention.
Ulcerative: surface of bladder appears red with ulcerative patches. The ulcers become apparent on over-distention.
Non-ulcerative: After over-distention tiny, discreet, rasp-berry like lesions appears on the dome and lateral wall of bladder with tiny mucosal tears and sub-mucosal hemorrhages.Age / Sex prevalance of Cystitis
It is more common in women around 40 years of age.
Cystitis is more prevalent among whites.
A woman’s urethra is shorter as compared to man’s urethra and also it is situated in close proximity to anus which makes it easier for bacteria to enter the female bladder. Most common bacteria that cause infection is E.coli. Conditions that cause risk for infection include:
• Men with an enlarged prostate
• Congenital deformity in the urinary system
Other causes may include:
• ‘Honeymoon’ cystitis: This refers to cystitis in women in relation to increased frequency of sexual activity. Bacteria that are present near the urethral opening may enter into the urethra and bladder and cause cystitis.
• Sexually transmitted infection (STI)
• Parasites (schistosomiasis).
• Lack of female sex hormones in postmenopausal women
• Contact dermatitis
• Burning pain while urinating (dysuria)
• Discharge from penis
• Blood in the urine or semen
• Urgent urination
• Pain with intercourse or ejaculation
• Itching, tenderness, or swelling in penis or groin area
• Fever (rare)
• Burning pain while urinating
• Fever and chills
• Abdominal pain
• Pelvic pain
• Urgent urination
• Vaginal discharge
Examination in men will include abdomen, bladder area, penis, scrotum, digital rectum exam. The physical exam may show:
• Discharge from the penis
• Tender and enlarged lymph nodes in the groin area
• Tender and swollen penis
Abdominal and pelvic examination in case of women:
• Discharge from the urethra
• Tenderness of the lower abdomen
• Tenderness of the urethra
• Complete blood count (CBC)
• Urinalysis and urine cultures
• Tests for gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and other sexually transmitted diseases
• Pelvic ultrasound
• Pregnancy test
• C-reactive protein test
Complications of cystitis occur due to underlying conditions such as diabetes, renal failure, an indwelling catheter stent or immunosuppression.
• Chlamydial Genitourinary Infections
• Herpes Simplex
• Bladder Cancer
• Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
• Non bacterial cystitis
Treatment for cystitis mainly aims at treating the underlying cause. However, antibiotics including amoxicillin or ciprofloxacin can be helpful.
• Timely treatment with antibiotics has a good prognosis.
• Untreated cystitis can spread upward and affect kidneys.
• For complicated cystitis prognosis depends on clinical presentation.
• Scalding sensation and soreness when urinating
• Difficult urination in children
• Great irritation at neck of bladder with repeated micturition
• Incontinence, with great irritation of the parts, urine red, hot, bloody and scanty.
• Burning pain at the start of urination.
• Urine mixed with pus and blood
• Cutting pain in bladder that extends down urethra
• Burning pain after urinating
• Yellow and turbid urine
• Pain in hips.
• Violent pains in urinary bladder
• Frequent urging to urinate.
• Painful discharge of bloody urine.
• Feeling as if a red-hot iron passing along urethra.
• Dull pain in urinary bladder with tenderness on pressure.
• Soreness of testis.
• Intense burning and sharp cutting pains in urethra.
• Great desire for urination, but small quantity passes.
• Indicated in chronic cases.
• Heaviness in urinary bladder.
• Frequent urging, but must wait a long time before passing urine.
• Retention of urine with full bladder.
• Intense burning with tenesmus at the neck of the urinary bladder.
• Painful maturation.
• Must urinate on getting chilled.
• Thick mucus, purulent sediment in urine.
• Blood in urine.
• Catarrh of bladder.
• Urine contains pus.
• Burning in urinary bladder and urethra on urinating.
• Bladder feels dull.
• Urine hot and burning.
• Tenesmus of bladder.
• Perspiration after urinating.
• Stabbing pain that extends from urethra to bladder.
• Bloody urine.
• Great urge to urinate.
• Inflammation of bladder with throbbing all over.
• Inflammation of urethra.
• Drink plenty of water.
• Void urine at the natural call.
• Urinate immediately after sexual intercourse out flush out most bacteria from the urethra.
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