Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an enlargement of the prostate gland. BPH is not a malignant disease.
The enlargement of prostate begins after the age of 60 years.
The flow of urine is restricted to the enlargement of the prostate gland. The wall of the urinary bladder becomes thick and trabeculated. This results in increased sensitivity in the bladder even with the small quantity of urine and this causes increased frequency of urine.Over time the bladder becomes weak and its ability of evacuation decreases hence resulting in chronic urinary retention.
In the bladder, obstruction leads to smooth-muscle-cell hypertrophy leading to higher bladder pressures upon filling.
The prostate is a small gland located between the bladder and the penis.The prostate is in front of the rectum.The urethra runs through the center of the prostate, from the bladder to the penis.
The fluid secreted by prostate nourishes and protects sperm. During ejaculation, the prostate squeezes this fluid into the urethra and is expelled with sperm as semen.
Normally prostate gland measures 20 g in volume, 3 cm in length, 4 cm wide, and 2 cm in depth. With the growing age, the prostate gland becomes variable in size secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia.
When the prostate gland enlarges, the capsule that surrounds the prostate prevents the radial expansion of prostate and results in compression of the urethra.
The contractile force of the bladder increases as a result of its thickness, irritability, and increased sensibility, thereby increasing the frequency of urine. With time the urinary bladder becomes weak and its ability to empty completely diminishes that results in increased residual volume of urine hence acute or chronic urinary retention occurs.Causes of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
It is considered as a normal part of the aging. Hormonal imbalance and changes in the growth of the cell results in the benign growth of the prostate gland.
Some researchers have suggested that androgen is necessary to cause BPH. This may be the cause that boys who are castrated do not get affected by BPH in old age.
• The flow of urine is slow.
• Difficulty in starting urination.
• The flow of urine is intermittent.
• Dribbling occurs at the end of urination.
• Feeling of urgency to urinate.
• The frequency of urination increases at night.
• Patient has to strain while urinating.
• The bladder does not get empty completely.
• Infection of the urinary tract.
• Kidney function gets affected.
• Formation of stones in the bladder.
• Prostate tissue that is pressing on the urethra is destroyed by heat, the process is called invasive treatment.
• Patients should decrease fluid intake before bedtime, moderate the consumption of alcohol and caffeine-containing products.
It is a benign condition and prognosis is good. Symptoms get worse as the prostate enlarges but with surgical help and proper medication it can be treated effectively.
• Inability to urinate.
• Damage to the kidneys.
• Urinary stones.
• Blood in the urine.
• Urinary tract infections.
• Stinging pain during urination.
• Swelling and tenderness in the prostate area.
• Worse from heat and warm rooms.
• Flow of urine on coughs or sneezing.
• On urination there is feeling of pulsation that extends from prostate to the bladder.
• Swelling of the prostate narrows the urinary passage.
• Urine starts slowly and dribbles afterward.
• A frequent urge to urinate at night.
• Difficulty in passing urine.
• Cold feeling in the sexual organs.
• Frequent urge of urination.
• Burning pain is felt near the neck of bladder.
• Dribbling of urine after urination.
• Profuse, clear, watery urine.
• Chilliness and tremulousness accompanies urination.
• Painful maturation.
• Intermittent flow.
• Difficulty in starting urination.
• Sharp pain in left loin.
• Great thirst with abdominal symptoms.
• Great heat and constant urging.
• Scanty urine with much mucus and tenesmus
• If the symptoms are mild and not bothering the patient then watchful waiting is advised.
• Patient will experience symptomatic relief by one moth with medicines, if does not happen the medicines must be discontinued.
• Avoid food containing cholesterol, carbohydrate and too much sweet food.
• Avoid alcohol or tobacco.
• Consume food rich in omege-3 fatty oil.
• Eat lots of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and soy products.
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