Aphthous ulcers are also called canker sores which are very painful sores.Formation of aphthous ulcers occurs on the mucous membrane of the mouth.Bacteria or viruses are responsible for causing aphthous ulcer.
An aphthous ulcer is not contagious.
Food from the mouth goes down to the esophagus and into the stomach. Inside of the mouth is lined by mucous membrane epithelium.The mouth cavity is bounded laterally and in front by the alveolar arches that contain teeth, and posteriorly by the isthmus of the fauces. The mouth performs the important function of eating, drinking and breathing.Classification of Aphthous Ulcer
• Recurrent minor aphthous ulcers: They are less than 5 mm in diameter and heal within 1-2 weeks.
• Major aphthous ulcers: They are larger than 10 mm and take a long time to heal, maybe weeks or months.
• Herpetiform Ulcers: These are multiple pinpoint ulcers. They commonly occur on the tongue and heal within a month.
Children are at great risk. Female are more prone to this disease.
The exact cause of aphthous ulceration is unknown.Risk factors are:
• Weak immune system.
• Vitamin B12, zinc, folic acid or iron deficiency.
• Spicy or acidic food.
• Smokers after withdrawal of smoking get mouth ulcers.
• Inflammatory bowel disorders.
• Trauma in the mouth, such as biting the tongue.
• In most cases, there is the development of ulcers without any reason.
• Painful sores inside the mouth, they can be single or multiple.
• Painful burning sensation.
• Sores have a yellowish-white border and are surrounded by a red area.
• Swollen lymph nodes.
• General discomfort or uneasiness.
• Fungal infection.
• Behcet’s syndrome.
• Diagnosis is done on the basis of physical examination and medical history of the patient.
• Sample from the mouth can be taken for biopsy or cultures
• The blood test can be done.
• Topical antibiotics.
• Anti-inflammatory gels.
Some treatment options are explained below to help in the aphthous ulcer.
• Medicated toothpaste.
• Use local anesthetics to reduce pain.
• Antibacterial mouthwashes reduce secondary infection.
• Avoid foods that aggravate the symptoms.
• Apply protective pastes that form a barrier over the ulcer to reduce exposure to irritating substances.
• Vitamins or mineral supplements.
• Try to avoid stress.
Diet for Aphthous Ulcer
Hard food can scrape the ulcer so soft food is advised to eat, e.g. banana, porridge, peaches, well cooked food etc.
The bland diet is easy to consume as it will not cause any discomfort.
Warm food can cause burning pain in affected area, try cold things
Symptoms disappear in 8-12 days. It usually heals on its own.
• Oral Thrush.
• Candida infection.
• Aphthae occurs in mouth and throat.
• Feeling as if tongue becomes tooling.
• The sensation of pungent heat in the oral cavity.
• Aphthae become bluish.
• Painful blisters.
• Gums become ulcerated, loose and dark red.
• Filthy taste in the mouth.
• Cracked tongue.
• Indicated for children and old people.
• Dryness of mouth
• Chewing is painful.
• Saliva tastes salty.
• No thirst.
• Thickly coated tongue.
• The tongue is swollen.
• Gangrenous stomatitis.
• Profuse secretion of acid saliva.
• The mucous surface of mouth red, tumid with gray based ulcers.
• Tongue feels as if burnt.
• Tongue thick, moist and furrowed.
• Fetid odor from mouth.
• Great thirst.
• Ulcer in the soft palate.
• Sharp splinter-like pains.
• Bloody saliva.
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