A cut or tear in the anus is called anal fissure. The anal fissure may extend up to the anal canal.
During bowel movements, anal fissure causes severe pain.
The most common cause of rectal bleeding in infants is anal fissure due to constipation.
If measures are taken to keep the stool soft, if the constipation is treated, anal fissures heal within few weeks. Some fissures may become chronic and if it doesn’t heal itself then medicines or surgery may be needed to relieve symptoms.
Basics of Anal Fissure :
An opening that allows exit of the intestinal contents is called anus. It is covered by anal epithelium.
The surface of the rectum is covered by a mucous membrane.
It borders the anus from the rectum.
It keeps the anus closed.
It can be tightened at will.
Anal Fissure Can Be Acute Or Chronic
• Tear in perineum during childbirth can reach up to the anus.
• Hard stool.
• Constipation and straining during bowel movements.
• Chronic diarrhea.
• Certain diseases are responsible for causing anal fissure such as- anal cancer, leukemia, tuberculosis syphilis, gonorrhea, Chlamydia, chancroid and HIV, Crohn’s disease or another inflammatory bowel disease.
• Pain during and after bowel movements.
• Bleeding from the stool.
• Crack in the skin around the anus.
• Itching around the anus.
• A small lump on the skin near the anal fissure.
An anal fissure is diagnosed by the following procedure:
• Anal inspection for the presence of a tear.
• If you have an underlying disorder such as Crohn’s disease or colorectal cancer, the following tests are done.
– Flexible sigmoidoscopy.
– Anal manometry
• Anal fissures heal within a few weeks if constipation and diarrhea are prevented.
• If the tear doesn’t heal within six to eight weeks, proper medicine is required.
• Fiber supplements to keep stool soft so as to avoid further irritation of the fissure.
• Sit baths
• Medicated rectal creams.
• Nitroglycerin ointment to the anus that widens blood vessels and increases the blood flow to the fissure. It promotes healing.
Anal fissures heal quickly, rarely it may not heal. Chances of recurrence are high.
• Extremely soreness in an anus.
• Fissures are usually caused by hard feces.
• The sensation of splinters in the anus.
• Intense tenesmus and constriction.
• Constant oozing of the fetid matter from the anus.
• Cutting pain in the rectum.
• Dryness of the anus.
• Constant severe oozing from the fissure.
• The anus if moist and sore.
• Burning pain after several hours of stool.
• Pain half an hour after stool that lasts for several hours.
• Painful fissure with constant burning pain.
• Ailments get worse during the winter season.
• Fissure with itching of anus.
• Anus drawn up with constriction.
• Stool hard, lumpy and black.
• Burning pain like fire for hours after stool.
• Constricted feeling.
• Temporary relief from burning by cold water.
• Constricting pains worse few hours after stool.
• Add fiber to your diet.
• Drink adequate fluids.
• Exercise regularly.
• Avoid straining during bowel movements.
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