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NiV was initially isolated and identified in 1999 during an outbreak of encephalitis and respiratory illness among pig farmers and people having close contact with pigs in Malaysia and Singapore. Its name originated from Sungai Nipah, a village in the Malaysian Peninsula where pig farmers became ill with encephalitis.
Nipah virus (NiV) infection is a newly emerging zoonosis (a disease which can be transmitted to humans from animals).
The natural host of the virus is fruit bats of the Pteropodidae Family, Pteropus genus. NiV is also capable of causing disease in pigs and other domestic animals.
Transmission of Nipah virus to human occur after direct contact with infected bats, infected pigs, or from other NiV infected people.
Incubation period of Nipah virus is 5 to 14 days.
Infective Period of the Disease
There is no clear cut knowledge of the exact infective period of the disease. Most of the second level victims of the outbreaks were relatives who cared for undiagnosed case-patients in their homes, patients/bystanders who unknowingly contacted the undiagnosed case-patients at hospital and health care workers who wore minimal personal protective equipment while caring for undiagnosed cases.
Duration of the Disease
Examination of the case histories in the recent outbreak in Kerala reveals that the duration of the sickness is about 3 to 14 days18. Most of the patients developed CNS symptoms in the 2nd or 3rd day of the illness.
Signs and Symptoms
Infection with Nipah virus is associated with encephalitis (inflammation of the brain). Nipah infection produces flulike symptoms which the following symptoms:
2. Altered mental status
3. Severe weakness
5. Respiratory distress
8. Muscle pain
9. Jerking of muscles.
⦁ Reduced Glasgow Coma Scale/Score
⦁ Raised temperature
⦁ Increased respiratory rate (Adult: ≥25/min; children of ≥ 12 months: ≥ 40/min)
⦁ Increased heart rate (Adult: ≥100/min; children of ≥ 12 months: ≥ 140/min)
⦁ Crepitations in lung
Few homeopathic medicines which help in treating the symptoms of the Nipah virus are:
Homeopathic treatment helps in curing the disease according to symptoms, so one must visit a homeopath rather than self medication. To avoid any harmful side effects of the medication, self prescription is to be avoided as it may cause harmful effects.
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