Health Tools
Vitamin A
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is stored in the liver. There are two types of vitamin A that are found in the diet. Preformed vitamin A is found in animal products such...

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Vitamin B12
Vitamin B12 commonly known as Cobalamin is vital for the formation of red blood cells, as well as for the proper functioning of the nervous system. Vitamin B12 is a water soluble vitamin. This...

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Vitamin B6/ Pyridoxine
Vitamin B6 is a water soluble vitamin i.e. it gets dissolved in water. The body cannot store them. The leftover amount of vitamin B6 leaves the body through urine. Vitamin B6 is the master...

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Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
Vitamin B2 is also known as Riboflavin. The prime role of this vitamin is to help with energy production at a cellular level. Deficiency of vitamin B2 mainly causes cervical cancer and migraine headache....

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Vitamin B1/ Thiamine
Thiamine or vitamin B1 is a water-soluble vitamin that was first characterised in the 1920s. It was one of the first compounds to be described as a vitamin. It is involved in numerous functions...

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Valproic acid level
Valproic acid level/ Depakote/ Depakene valproic acid The Valproic acid test is ordered to measure and monitor the amount of valporic acid in blood to determine whether the drug concentration is within the therapeutic...

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Urine culture
Urine culture is a test done to evaluate the presence of growth like bacteria or yeast infection, which is the main cause of urinary tract infection (UTI). Normally urine in the bladder is sterile....

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Urine calcium
This test is done to measure the amount of calcium in urine. All cells need calcium to work .Calcium helps build strong bones and teeth. It is also very important for heart function, and...

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Urinary N-methyl histamine (NMH)
Urinary N-methyl histamine (NMH) test is done for screening and monitoring of mastocytosis and disorder of systemic mast-cells activation like anaphylaxis or other severe systemic allergic reactions. Reference range of Urinary N-methyl histamine Reference...

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Urinalysis
Urinalysis is the examination of the urine for its physical, chemical and microscopic evaluation. A number of test are done to detect a wide range of disorder including that can be detected through the...

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Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)/ Thyrotropin
Thyroid stimulating hormone is tested to measure the amount of TSH in blood. It is produced by the pituitary gland, where it is produced and released into the blood. The test is done to...

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Troponins
Troponins are the protein molecules that are part of cardiac and skeletal muscle. Troponins are not present in smooth muscle cells. Reference range of Troponins Normal troponin level: Troponin Ι: <101µg/L Troponin T: 0-0.1µg/L...

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Triiodothyronine (T3)
Triiodothyronine (T3) level test is conducted on individuals who are suspected to have hyperthyroidism or who have symptoms of hyperthyroidism. It can also be done when the thyroid-stimulation hormone (TSH) levels are lower than...

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Transferrin saturations
Transferrin saturation is a test used for screening iron content in the body. If transferrin saturation is less than 20%, it indicates iron deficiency in the body whereas if it is more than 50%...

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Transferrin Receptor
A blood protein known as Transferrin receptor may be found elevated in individuals with iron deficiency. This test is conducted to measure the level of soluble transferring receptor which help in diagnosing iron deficiency...

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Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC)
Total iron-binding capacity is the blood test to detect the quantity of iron in the blood i.e. how well transferring protein can carry iron in the blood. (Iron moves through the blood attached to...

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Thyroxine (T4)
T4 (Thyroxine) is a hormone which is produced by the thyroid gland. It is produced by thyroid gland as a prohormone that is converted by deiodination to T3. Blood test is conducted to measure...

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Thyroid-Binding Globulin
Thyroid-Binding Globulin (TBG)/ serum thyroxine binding globulin Thyroid-Binding Globulin (TBG) is a blood test used to measure the level of protein that helps in the movement of thyroid hormone throughout the body. It is...

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Thyroglobulin
Thyroglobulin test is primarily used as a tumor marker to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer and to monitor for its recurrence. Reference range of Thyroglobulin Thymoglobulin antibody (TgAba) screen <...

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Schirmer’s Test
Schirmer’s test determines whether the eye produces enough tears to keep eyes moist. Test is done when person complaints of excessive dryness or excessive watering from the eyes. Procedure: Schirmer’s test uses special paper...

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Parathyroid Hormone Related Peptide
PTH-related peptide is produced by some cancers, including those of lungs, breast, head, neck, bladder and ovaries as well as leukemia and lymphoma. High level of PTH related protein may be a cause of...

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Protein S
Protein S is a substance that prevents blood clotting. Protein S is a vitamin K-dependent plasma glycoprotein. It is synthesized in the endothelium. Synthesis of protein S occurs in the liver, endothelial cells, and...

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Protein C
Protein C is a plasma anticoagulant factor required for maintenance of homeostatic balance. Protein C is synthesized in the liver and measurement of protein C activity aids in the diagnosis of thrombotic disorders and...

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Prolactin (PRL)
Prolactin is a hormone released by the pituitary gland. The prolactin test measures the amount of prolactin in the blood. Reference range of Prolactin • Males: 2-18 ng/mL • Non-pregnant females: 2-29 ng/mL •...

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Progesterone
In women: A progesterone test measures the amount of the hormone level in the blood. The progesterone is a female hormone produced by ovaries during release of a mature egg from an ovary during...

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Procainamide level
Procainamide hydrochloride is a class 1a anti arrhythmic that is used to treat a wide variety of ventricular and atrial arrhythmias. Reference Range of Procainamide: Therapeutic concentration of procainamide is 4-8 µg/ml. Interpretation of...

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Porphobilinogen
Porphobilinogen (PBG) is one of the several types of porphyrin found in your body. Normally our body breaks down porphyrin into heme, an important part of hemoglobin. Porphyrin usually leaves our body through urine...

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Platelet Aggregation
Platelet aggregation studies test the clumping response of platelets on various platelet activators(e.g., ADP, collagen, arachidonic acid, thrombin, epinephrine, ristocetin) as continuously recorded by a light transmission aggregometer. Reference Range of Platelet aggregation: Interpretation...

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Phosphorus
It plays an important role in how the body uses carbohydrates and fats. It is also needed for the body to make protein for the growth, maintenance, and repair of cells and tissues. Phosphorus...

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Phenytoin level
It is an epileptic drug with several pharmacologic actions including ion conductance, Na –K ATPase activity, synaptic transmission and neurotransmission and neurotransmitter release; the antiepileptic effects of phenytoin are thought to be related to...

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Phenobarbital level
Phenobarbital is a barbiturate that reduces excitatory synaptic responses by acting on GABA receptors. It is most commonly used in the treatment of seizures including tonic clonic seizures and in status epilepticus. Reference Range...

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Pericardial Fluid Analysis
Pericardial fluid is an ultra filtrate of plasma that lies within the pericardial sac acting as a lubricant between the visceral and parietal layer of pericardium. The space normally contains 15-50 ml of thin,...

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Parathyroid hormone
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is produced by the 4 parathyroid glands which are situated behind the thyroid gland in the anterior neck. The release of PTH is normally stimulated by low calcium levels in the...

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Osmotic Fragility of Erythrocytes test
Osmotic fragility test (OFT) is used to measure erythrocytes resistant to hemolysis while being exposed to varying degree of dilution of a saline solution. When erythrocytes are exposed to a hypotonic environment, water enters...

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N-Terminal Telopeptide
In bone physiology, the N-Terminal Telopeptide is a biomarker used to measure the rate of bone turnover.NTX can be measured in urine or serum. Reference Range of N-Terminal Telopeptide: For males the reference range...

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Neisseria Gonorrhoea Culture
Gonorrhoea is a common N gonorrhea infection that is transmitted by sexual contact and primarily affects the mucous membranes of urethra and cervix, less frequently of rectum, oropharynx and conjunctivae. In women it leads...

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Methylmalonic acid
Methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels are used to evaluate for vitamin B-12 deficiency. Reference Range of Methylmalonic acid: The reference range of MMA is 0-0.4 µmol/L (0-4.7µg/dl). Interpretation of Methylmalonic acid: MMA levels are increased...

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Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)
Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is the average amount of space occupied by each red blood cell. Reference Range of Mean corpuscular volume: The normal reference range is typically 80-96 fl. Interpretation of Mean corpuscular...

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MCH and MCHC
Mean corpuscular Hemoglobin and Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) Mean corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) is the average mass of hemoglobin per red cell in the sample of blood. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) is a...

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Liver Biopsy/ Percutaneous Biopsy
A liver biopsy is a procedure to remove a small piece of the liver for examination under microscope for signs of damage or disease. Liver biopsy is performed when there is difficultly to diagnose...

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Lipoprotein A
A blood test for specific type lipoprotein A is conducted to rule out risk of heart disease. Lipoproteins are molecules made up of proteins and fats. These carry cholesterol and similar substance...

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Lidocaine level
Lidocaine is an amide type local anesthesia. It is as available as crystalline power solution in alcohol and normal saline. It helps in suppressing ventricular ectopic in the setting of myocardial infarction and increases...

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Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Luteinizing hormone is a hormone produced by gonadotroph cells in the anterior pituitary gland. In females, an acute rise of LH triggers ovulation and development of the corpus luteum. In males, where LH also...

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Joint-Fluid crystal/ Synovial Fluid Analysis
Joint fluid analysis is a group of tests that examine synovial i.e. joint fluid. Gout and pseudo gout are the two most common crystalline arthoptheies. These are caused by deposition of monosodium urate (MSU)...

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Iron (Fe)
Serum Iron test is done to check amount of iron in the blood and to see how well iron is metabolized in the body. Iron is the essential component of hemoglobin, the protein in...

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Insulin
An insulin test is a blood test that measures the amount of insulin, a hormone that helps in regulation of blood glucose. It is released from the pancreas. Insulin’s most important function is to...

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Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin Hormone (hCG)
Human chorionic gonadotrophic hormone (hCG) is a hormone produced by the syncytiotrophoblast, a component of the fertilized egg, after conception. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a dimer consisting of a 145 amino acid beta-subunit...

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High Sensitivity C – Reactive Protein
CRP is an acute–phase reactant synthesized by the liver in response to cytokines released by damaged tissue. CRP is commonly measured to screen for inflammation or infection. CRP is produced by cells in the...

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Hepatitis C Virus
Hepatitis C Testing Hepatitis C is an infectious disease affecting primarily the liver, caused by the hepatitis C virus. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a small, enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus. The primary...

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Hepatitis B Test
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a DNA virus having lipoprotein-coated surface, which is called the surface antigen. This antigen is the first serologic marker to appear in serum after HBV infection and is excessively...

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