Wolff-parkinson-white syndrome

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Wolff-parkinson-white syndrome is a condition in which a particular type of abnormal, extra electrical pathway between your heart’s upper chambers and lower chambers causes a rapid heartbeat.
Wolff-parkinson-white syndrome is also defined as specific type of abnormality of electrical system of heart.

Age/sex prevalance of Wolff-parkinson-white syndrome

Wolff-parkinson-white syndrome is found in any age group.Wolff-parkinson-white syndrome is most commonly found in infants. Both sexes are equally affected.

Race affected by Wolff-parkinson-white syndrome

Individuals of any race can be affected.

Causes of Wolff-parkinson-white syndrome

Normally, electrical signals in the heart go through a certain pathway that helps the heart beat regularly.The wiring of heart prevents extra beats from occurring and keeps the next beat from happening too soon.In individuals of wolf Parkinson white syndrome some of the heart electrical signal goes down an extra pathway. This may cause a very rapid rate called supraventricular tachycardia.

Wolff-parkinson-white syndromesign and symptoms

Wolff-Parkinson-white syndrome presents with the below given presentation of symptoms
Infants show following symptoms
• Pallor
• Irritability
• Tachypnea
• Intolerance to feeding
• Chances of having congestive heart failure if the episode has been untreated for several hours.
• An intercurrent febrile illness may be present
• History of not behaving normal for 1-2 days

In case of verbal child with Wolff-Parkinson-white syndrome present following symptoms
• Chest pain
• Difficult breathing
• Palpitations

Patients of older age group suffering from wolf-Parkinson-white syndrome present with following symptoms
• Pulse that is regular and too rapid to count
• Typically a concomitant reduction in their tolerance for activity
• Sudden onset of pounding heartbeat.

Physical findings include the following
• Normal cardiac examination findings in the vast majority of cases.
• During tachycardia episodes the patient may be cool, diaphoretic, and hypotensive
• Crackles in the lungs from pulmonary vascular congestion

Clinical features of associated cardiac defects may be present such as the following
• Cardiomyopathy
• Ebstein anomaly
• Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Investigations ofWolff-parkinson-white syndrome

Routine blood studies to be done are as follows
• Liver function tests
• Thyroid panel
• Drug screening
• Complete blood count
• Renal function studies and electrolyte
Electrocardiography
Echocardiography
Electrophysiological studies

Treatment of Wolff-parkinson-white syndrome

Treatment includes medications such as anti arrhythmic agents.
Pharmacologic therapy include two type of agents to be used for medications
• Agents acting on atrioventricular node
• Agents acting on accessory pathway
Radiofrequency ablation is also used as a therapy
Long-term antiarrhythmic therapy
Surgery includes open heart procedures.

Complications of Wolff-parkinson-white syndrome

Possible complications of wolf-Parkinson-white-syndrome
• Heart failure
• Reduced blood pressure
• Complications of surgery
• Side effects of medications

Differential diagnosis of Wolff-parkinson-white syndrome

• Genetics of glycogen-storage disease type 1
• Genetics of glycogen storage disease type 2
• Lown-ganong Levine syndrome
• Syncope
• Ventricular tachycardia
• Ebstein anomaly
• Danon disease
• Atrial tachycardia
• Atrial flutter
• Atrial fibrillation
• Atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia
• Paroxysmal supraventricualr tachycardia

Prognosis of Wolff-parkinson-white syndrome

Catheter ablation cures this disorder in most patients. Success rates will vary depending on the location and number of extra pathways.