Obesity is a term used when weight of an individual is in excess than normal desired weight of the body according to age and sex. The individual having excess weight than required according to age are known as obese person. Obesity is defined in different definitions.
Excess of body fat is termed as obesity. Obesity term for weight is used only when weight of the body is excessive only due to excess fat content of body. The reason for excess body weight is not only fat but sometimes it may be due to excess muscle weight, bone or water in body , in that cases we do not term person as obese.
When weight of an individual is more than 20% of normal body weight than that person is considered as obese.
The clear way of measuring obesity is in terms of Body Mass Index (BMI). An individual is considered overweight is his or her body mass index is between 25 and 29, and a person is considered as obese if BMI is more than 30.
Obesity shows harmful effect on human body if the overweight of body is more than 50% to 100% of normal weight, or if BMI is more than 40 values. At this stage body become prone to many diseases and overweight shows its harmful effects.
Adipocyte cells are the major fat storage cells of the body.
If the size of the cells increases due to fat absorption and lead to increase body weight then that type of overweighing is known as hypertrophic obesity, characteristic feature is enlarged adipocyte cells and this type of obesity is seen on abdomen part of body.
Another type of obesity is hyper cellular obesity; this type of obesity is very common in childhood and occurs due to increase in number of fat cells (adipocytes).
Age / Sex prevalance of Obesity
Any age group can have obesity.
Both males and females are prone depending on standard of living.
Genetically, obesity can travel through generations.
Deaths due to obesity are more seen in African Americans and Hispanic Americans is greater than in White Americans.
Obesity occurs mainly due to imbalance between energy intake and its utilization that is mismanagement between input and output of energy ion body. Eating more and less physical exertion is lead to this energy equation imbalance.
The related factors are
• Level of activity of body physically.
• Genetic factors are also responsible.
• Obesity also depends on age, sex, and race.
• Socio economic status leads to change in eating habits. The higher the status more is fast food eating lead to gain weight.
• Cultural factors are also responsible, as every culture have its own eating habits.
• Dietary habits.
• Smoking stoppage.
• Pregnancy leads to gain in weight, after menopause due to hormone changes.
• Metabolic factors in body. If Basal metabolic rate is less people are fatty.
• Psychological factors, as in stress condition some people eat more to reduce stress that lead to weight gain.
• Individuals of diabetic history.
• Lactation also one of the factors in females to gain weight.
People who are obese are prone to many diseases. Obesity disease is one of the major causes for many diseases.
Associated health risks with obesity are
• Liver diseases such as fatty liver.
• Diabetes is also more associated with obese people.
• Heart diseases (coronary heart disease).
• Breathing disorders (sleep apnea), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
• Joint diseases (e.g. osteoarthritis).
• GERD gastric esophageal reflux disease.
• High level of cholesterol.
• Certain types of cancers are also associated (uterine cancer in women, prostate cancer in men).
Biggest tool of investigation in obesity is its measurement by following ways.
MEASUREMENT OF OBESITY
Obesity is measured in terms of Body Mass Index.
Body mass index is calculated as weight/height, weight in kilograms and height in meters.
There are different methods to estimate level of obesity as like Durenberger equation, in this procedure body fat percentage is estimated
Body fat percentage =1.2(BMI) +0.23(age)-10.8(sex)-5.4
Age is in years and sex is designated as 1 for males and 0 for females.
This equation accounts for 80% of the variation in body weight.
Fate of obesity depends on many factors and shows a large number of variations in prognosis depending on each individual case.
Obesity is not a disease but it lead to many diseases so it becomes a risk factor for many diseases. And morbidity and mortality rates associated with obesity depend on many factors such as
• Stage of obesity whether mild or severe.
• Amount of disposition of fat on central body parts.
• Gender affected by obesity.
• Race affected.
• Age at which obesity is present and time period during which obesity is present.
• Duration of obesity.
• Level of fitness and daily routine.
• Level of cardio respiratory health.
Obesity show complications only when any disease is associated with it.
Diseases occurring due to obesity are as following
• Different type of cancers.
• Gall bladder diseases.
• Hepatic steatosis.
• Endocrine abnormalities.
• Lung functions impaired.
• Complications during pregnancy.
• Skin diseases.
• Uric acid increase(gout)
Treatment of obesity is by management with diet and activity level. Treatment of obesity depends on severity of disease.
In mild cases of obesity weight can be reduced by adopting healthy food habits, fat free diet and good exercise levels at home.
In severe cases of obesity, individual need an advice from health professionals such as nutritionist, dietician, therapist, and obesity specialist.
The major goal to treat obesity is to improve the imbalance in energy input and energy output of body.
Factors that balance this input output levels are as follows:
• Dietary changes make a habit of eating fat free diet or diet with less fat.
• Make daily habit of good exercise and more activity.
• Sitting job individuals should make small exercises while sitting time.
• Weight loss surgeries such as liposuction are helpful in extreme cases.
• Medications on weight loss to be taken.
• Homemade remedies for weight loss.
•Well indicated medicine for patients who have tendency to grow fat.
•Patient gets angry at every little attention.
•Help in reducing excess fat of the body.
•Patient is much concerned about his fate.
• Patient has tendency to fatty degenrations.
•Well indicated medicine to reduce fatty deposits in different organs f the body.
•Fleshy aged people,with dropsical and paretic tendencies.
•Tendency to dropsy.
•Pain in small spots on left side.
•This remedy is given when diseases occur due to faulty nutrition.
•Help in reducing obesity.
•Patient has complains of constipation.
•Stools are hard with great straining,painful lacerating anus.
•A remedy for obesity and non toxic goiter also exopthalmic.
•Digestion is furthered and flatulence diminished.
•Thyroid enlargement in obese subjects.
•Obstinate constipation forehead feels as if compressed by an iron ring.