If over activity of hypothalamus, pituitary gland or thyroid gland occurs and it results in release of excess amount of thyroid hormones in blood circulation, the condition is called hyperthyroidism.
The condition is also known as “overactive thyroid”.

The thyroid gland is located in the front part of neck and covers the trachea. It has two lobes attached to the middle part called isthmus hence its shape resembles a butterfly.
Two most important hormones of thyroid are thyroxine (T4) and triiothyronine (T3).

After releasing from the thyroid gland T4 is converted into T3 because T3 is more active hormone that affects the metabolism of cells.
Hypothalamus and pituitary gland in brain plays a major role in stimulating thyroid gland to release hormones. Hypothalamus synthesizes and releases a hormone called thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) that sends a signal to pituitary gland to release thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the blood stream which in turn sends signal to the thyroid gland and stimulates the thyroid to release T4 and T3.
Iodine is used by thyroid gland to produce hormones. Pituitary gland maintains the level of thyroid hormones in blood. If level of thyroid hormones increases in blood pituitary gland inhibits the release of TSH, if the level of thyroid hormones decreases pituitary gland releases more TSH. Defect in this process leads to hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.

Mortality of Hyperthyroidism

It is a treatable condition, some complications can be fatal.

Age / Sex prevalence of Hyperthyroidism

It most commonly occurs between 20-40 years. Women are at more risk of having hyperthyroidism.

Races affected by Hyperthyroidism

It occurs in people of all races.

Causes of Hyperthyroidism

Common causes of hyperthyroidism are:
• Excessive intake of iodine.
• Grave’s disease:

Overactivity of thyroid gland occurs in grave’s disease. It is a hereditary disease and more common in women. Eye disease called Grave’s ophthalmopathy and skin lesions occurs in Grave’s disease. In grave’s ophthalmopathy eyes protrude and double vision may occur with hypersensitivity to light and sensation of san in the eyes. Skin lesions include red colored rashes on front side of legs.
• Increased intake of thyroid hormones.
• Inflammation of thyroid gland called thyroiditis:

Viral illness causes inflammation of thyroid gland. Patient experience fever, sore throat, neck pain.
There is accumulation of white blood cells with inflammation of thyroid gland, the condition is known as lymphocytic thyroiditis. It most commonly occurs after pregnancy.
Both of these inflammation leads to increases secretion of thyroid hormones.
• Toxic multinodular goiter:

As the age progresses thyroid gland becomes nodular. These nodules do not produce thyroid hormones. Any one nodule may gets functional and does not respond to pituitary gland and produces its own thyroid hormones. If there is more than one functioning nodule then it is called toxic multi-nodular goiter.
• Tumor of the pituitary gland secrets increased amount of TSH.

Signs and Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism

Patients with mild disease and patients over 70 years of age experience no symptoms. Hyperthyroidism causes increased metabolic rate of the body and the signs and symptoms are as follows:
• Intolerance to heat.
• Increased sweating.
• Increased bowel movements.
• Puffiness around the eyes.
• Tremor.
• Weight loss.
• Nervousness.
• Rapid heart rate.
• Scanty and irregular periods.
• Fatigue.
• Decreased concentration.

Differential diagnosis of Hyperthyroidism

• Graves Disease.
• Goiter.
• Thyrotoxicosis.
• Plummer-Vinson Syndrome.

Investigations of Hyperthyroidism

Following are the diagnostic test for hyperthyroidism:
• Measurement of blood TSH level.
• If eyes are involved suspicion for Grave’s disease rises, then antibody screening and thyroid scan with radioactive iodine is done.
• If there is abnormally high level of TSH it give rises to suspicion of pituitary tumor.

Treatment of Hyperthyroidism

• Beta-blocker:
it treats the symptoms but do not alter the level of thyroid hormones in blood.

• Anti-thyroid drugs:
they accumulate in the thyroid tissue and block production of thyroid hormone. Its side effect is that it suppresses the production of red blood cells by bone marrow.
The patient must visit doctor while taking anti-thyroid drug.

• Radio-active iodine:
it is given orally in the form of pill or liquid. Radio-active iodine is picked up by the active cells and destroys them. It attacks only active thyroid cells; destruction is local with no widespread side effects.

• Surgery:
thyroid tissue that produces excess thyroid hormone is removed through surgery; the process is called partial thyoidectomy.

Diet / management of Hyperthyroidism

• Green leafy vegetables.
• Cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli helps in reducing thyroid hormone production.
• Food containing omega-3 fatty acid.
• Soy products.
• Antioxidants rich fruits like berries, grapes, oranges, lemon, etc.
• Dairy products.

Prognosis of Hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism responds well to medications. Some complications can affect quality of life.

Complications of Hyperthyroidism

• Congestive heart failure.
• Rapid heart rate.
• Osteoporosis.
• Scarring of neck, hoarseness due to nerve damage after surgery.

Homeopathic treatment for Hyperthyroidism

Every branch of science has its own scope and limitations, so does Homeopathy. Although Homeopathy has a lot of very good remedies for curing & controlling auto-immune disorders, male & female disorders, children and elderly people.

In cases of any emergency situation such as poisoning, serious abdominal complaints (such as acute appendicitis and pancreatitis), fractures, injury, and accidents should be first taken to emergency. However a patient can consult his homeopathic physician after recovering from his initial phase. Please note Homeopathy plays no role in treating any nutritional disorders.

The scope of Homeopathy is limited; it is the sole responsibility of the physician to decide upon the cure – by looking into the complete nature of the disease, onset and stage of the disease and then act accordingly.

Calcarea phos:
• Glandular enlargement.
• Numbness and crawling are characteristic symptoms.
• Tendency to perspiration.

Calcarea carb:
• Increased perspiration.
• Scrofulous constitution.
• Tendency to take cold easily with increased mucous secretion.

• Rapid weight loss.
• Increased thirst and hunger.
• Great debility, slightest effort induces perspiration.
• Goiter with sensation of constriction.

• Exopthalmic goiter.
• Dryness in throat.
• Stitching, burning and stinging sensation.
• Sore throat, worse after eating sweet things.