Calcyphylaxis

Calciphylaxis is a syndrome in which calcium deposits in the vascular system forming thrombus and causing skin necrosis. Calciphylaxis disease is found in kidney patients who are stage 5 of chronic kidney failure.
Age/sex prevalence of calciphylaxis


Females are commonly affected by calciphylaxis ration of female to male is 3:1.
Individuals of any age can be affected by calciphylaxis. Most common age group to be affected is 48 years of age.

Races affected by calciphylaxis

Although calciphgylaxis can occur in individuals of any race but whites are more affected.

Causes of calciphylaxis

There are many disorders which are related to calciphylaxis and are mentioned below
•Conditions which are associated include chronic renal failure, elevated calcium-phosphate product, hyperparathyroidism, vascular calcification, hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia.
•Other associated conditions include coagulation abnormalities, iron dextran infusion and aluminium toxicity.
•If there are systemic inflammations then they are considered to be as predisposing factor.

Sign and symptoms of calciphylaxis

•Ischemic lesions of subcutaneous fat
•Ischemic skin muscle lesions
•Secondary hyperparathyroidism
•Necrosis of skin
•Calcification of skin blood lesions

Investigations of calciphylaxis

There is no such diagnostic test for calciphylaxis.
Disease is diagnosed by the physical symptoms such as isxhemic skin lesions.

Treatment of calciphylaxis

There is no specific treatment for calciphylaxis. Treatment could include the followings points
•Dialysis
•Clot-dissolving agents
•Hyperbaric oxygen
•Local tissue trauma should be avoided
•Urgent parathyroidectomy
•Adequate pain control

Prognosis of calciphylaxis

Prognosis of calciphylaxis is not very good. Mortality rates are high.

Complications of calciphylaxis

•Lesions of calciphylaxis can lead to ulcers which take long time to heal or even nonhealing and can even lead to cutaneous gangrene.
•In patients where involvement of calciphylaxis occurs in internal parts it can lead to gastrointestinal hemorrhage, infarction or even organ failure.
•Sometimes patient treated with calcimimetics,sodium thiosulfate may even lead to hypocalcemia.

Differential diagnosis of calciphylaxis

•Venous ulcers
•Wegener granulomatosis
•Erythema nodosum
•Necrotizing fasciitis
•Vibrio vulnificua infection
•Pyoderma gangrenosum
•Lupus erythematosus, bullous
•Bullous pemphigoid
•Cellulitis
•Brown recluse spider bite

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