Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe, debilitating mental illness, also called split personality disorder.
Person’s thinking is completely out of touch with reality. The sufferer may hear voices or see people that are not present. The individual with this disorder may also have disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, physically rigid or lax behavior (catatonia), decreased behaviors or feelings, delusions.
Schizophrenic person has poor emotional response and are likely to develop depression and anxiety disorders.
A lot of genetic and environmental factors paly role in developing Schizophrenia.
Schizophrenic person are socially isolated , emotionlesss, suspicious and have drug dependence.
A child of a parent suffering from schizophrenia has a 10% chance of developing the illness.
The prevalence of schizophrenia is approximately 1% worldwide.Classification of Schizophrenia
There are five types of schizophrenia, each based on the kind of symptoms the person has at the time of assessment
• Paranoid schizophrenia:
The individual experience one or more delusions or many auditory hallucinations.
• Disorganized schizophrenia:
Prominent symptoms are disorganized speech and behavior, as well as flat or inappropriate affect.
• Catatonic schizophrenia:
The person has at least two of the following symptoms: difficulty moving, resistance to moving, excessive movement, abnormal movements, and/or repeating what others say or do.
• Undifferentiated schizophrenia:
This is characterized by two or more of the following symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech or behavior, catatonic behavior or negative symptoms.
• Residual schizophrenia:
While the full-blown characteristic positive symptoms of schizophrenia (an excess of normal behavior, such as delusions, paranoia, or heightened sensitivity) are absent, the sufferer has a less severe form of the disorder or has only negative symptoms (decrease in function, such as withdrawal, disinterest, and not speaking).
Schizophrenia almost occurs equally in men and women. The onset of schizophrenia usually occurs in adolescence. Schizophrenia is known to run in families.
No racial differences are there
• It is the result of a complex group of genetic, psychological, and environmental factors (history of using marijuana )
• A number of drugs have been associated with the development of schizophrenia, including cannabis, cocaine and amphetamines.
• Psychologically, early loss of a parent, parental poverty, bullying, parental violence; being the victim of emotional, sexual, or physical abuse, emotional neglect.
• Involvement of multiple genes (dopamine , serotonin)
• Delusions-Misinterpretation of perception or experience.
• Hallucinations-Seeing or hearing things that don’t exist.
• Thought disorder -Difficulty speaking and organizing thoughts may result in stopping speech mid sentence or putting together meaningless words.
• Disorganized behavior-Patient behaves in a childish way to unpredictable agitation.
These symptoms include diminishment or absence of normal function.
• Loss of interest in everyday activities
• Appearing to lack emotion
• Reduced ability to plan or carry out activities
• Neglect of personal hygiene
• Social withdrawal
• Loss of motivation
Cognitive symptoms involve problems with thought processes.
• Difficulty paying attention
• Memory problems
Investigations for Schizophrenia
• Neurological examination
• Family history
• Brain scans and blood tests may help rule out other conditions that have similar symptoms.
• Complete blood count
• Liver function test
• Thyroid test
• Kidney function test
• Brain abscess
• Bipolar affective disorder
• Folic acid deficiency
• Head trauma
Hospitalization and anti-psycotic medications
• Impaired memory , depression
• Fear of examination
• Aversion to work , lack of confidence
Arsenicum album –
• Debility and exhaustion and restlessness
• Great exhaustion after slight exertion
• Gradual weight loss , great anguish and restlessness
• Hallucinations of smell and sight
Aurum metallicum –
• Patient hopeless , weakness of memory
• Feeling of worthlesness and disgust for life
• Great fear of death and oversensitivness
Hyoscyamus niger –
• Weakness and twitching of muscles
• Suspicious nature with desire to uncover the body
• A rapid change from joy to sadness
• Cannot tolerate darkness must have light and company
• Violent nature
The family should provide a caring, safe environment that allows for as much freedom of action as is appropriate at the time.