Hip dysplasia

Hip dysplasia also known as developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) or congenital dysplasia of the hip (CDH) is a congenital or developmental deformation or misalignment or defective alignment of the hip joint.
In hip dysplasia the hip socket doesn’t fully cover the ball portion of the upper thighbone.

Age/sex prevalance of Hip dysplasia

Hip dysplasia occurs during infancy. But in some people do not develop symptom until later part of life.
Both men and women are equally affected.

Races affected by Hip dysplasia

Individuals of any race can be affected by hip dysplasia.

Causes of Hip dysplasia

Hip dysplasia is considered to be multifactorial condition.
Hip dysplasia is a genetic deformity so the major cause abnormality in genes. Mutation of genes can lead to hip dysplasia.
Exact cause is unknown but it is found that hip dysplasia is common in cases of a large fetus or a fetus in breech presentation.

Acquired conditions which are responsible for causing hip dysplasia are as follows:
• Traditions of swaddling infants
• Use of overly restrictive baby seats
• Carriers
• Other methods of transporting babies or use of cradle board which locks the hip joint in an adducted position.

Other risk factors are as follows
• Breech birth
• Gender
• Genetics that is family history
• Firstborns
When fetus is in breech position the femoral head tends to get pushed out of the socket.
A narrow uterus also facilitates hip joint dislocation during fetal development and birth.

Sign and symptoms of Hip dysplasia

The very first sign of hip dysplasia in adolescent or young adult is typically hip pain or limping.
In rare cases clicking and popping may be presenting signs.
• Hip pain with dysplasia is usually associated with activities.
• With time if treatment is not done frequency and intensity of pain is increased.
• Once symptoms of dysplasia become severe, a mild limp may occur.
• The most common cause of limp is pain. A painless limp may be caused by weak muscles also so hip dysplasia is not the only cause of hip dysplasia.

Investigations of Hip dysplasia

The condition of hip dysplasia can be confirmed by ultrasound and X-ray.

Treatment of Hip dysplasia

There are different ways of relieving pain and are as follows:
• Harnesses
• Casts
• Traction
Surgery is done to relocate the joint.
Bone grafting id done.
Hip replacement and osteotomy

Complications of Hip dysplasia

Numerous complications occur as following:
• Redislocation
• Stiffness of the hip
• Blood loss
• Possibly the most devastating
• Necrosis of the femoral head.

Differential diagnosis of Hip dysplasia

Muscle weakness can also lead to limp and pain in hip.

Prognosis of Hip dysplasia

The prognosis for children treated for hip dysplasia is very good, especially if the dysplasia is managed with closed treatment. If closed treatment is unsuccessful and open reduction is needed, the outcome may be less favorable.

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