laboratory

  • Vitamin B12 deficiency

    Vitamin B12 commonly known as Cobalamin is vital for the formation of red blood cells, as well as for the proper functioning of the nervous system. Vitamin B12 is a water soluble vitamin. Lack of sufficient amount of vitamin B12 in the body cause vitamin B12 deficiency which results in anemia (pernicious anemia) and irreversible […]

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  • Vitamin B6/ Pyridoxine

    Vitamin B6 is a water soluble vitamin i.e. it get dissolved in water. The body cannot store them. Leftover amount of vitamin B6 leaves the body through urine. Vitamin B6 is the master vitamin for processing amino-acids, which are the building blocks of all proteins and some hormones. It also needed in making of hormones […]

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  • Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

    Vitamin B2 is also known as Riboflavin. Prime role of this vitamin is to help with energy production at a cellular level. Deficiency of vitamin B2 mainly causes cervical cancer and migraine headache. It can also help in preventing acne, muscle cramps, burning feet syndrome, carpal tunnel syndrome, and few blood disorders like congenital methemoglobinemia […]

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  • Vitamin B1/ Thiamine

    Thiamine or vitamin B1 is a water-soluble vitamin that was first characterized in the 1920s. It was one of the first compounds to be described as a vitamin. It is involved in numerous functions in the body, including nervous system and muscular functioning carbohydrate metabolism, enzymatic processes, and production of hydrochloric acid needed for digestion. […]

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  • Valproic acid level

    Valproic acid level/ Depakote/ Depakene valproic acid The Valproic acid test is ordered to measure and monitor the amount of valporic acid in blood to determine whether the drug concentration is within the therapeutic range or not. Valporic acid is an 8-carbon 2-chain fatty acid. It is metabolized by the liver and processed at a […]

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  • Urine culture

    Urine culture is a test done to evaluate the presence of growth like bacteria or yeast infection, which is the main cause of urinary tract infection (UTI). Normally urine in the bladder is sterile. It does not contain any bacteria or any other harmful organisms. In case when bacteria enters in the urethra can cause […]

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  • Urine calcium

    This test is done to measure the amount of calcium in urine. All cells need calcium to work .Calcium helps build strong bones and teeth. It is also very important for heart function, and helps with muscle contraction, nerve signaling and blood clotting. Reference range of Urine calcium Males: 25-300 mg/24 hour specimen Females: 20-275 […]

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  • Urinary N-methyl histamine (NMH)

    Urinary N-methyl histamine (NMH) test is done for screening and monitoring of mastocytosis and disorder of systemic mast-cells activation like anaphylaxis or other severe systemic allergic reactions. Reference range of Urinary N-methyl histamine Reference range Urinary N-methyl histamine Age Values 0-5 years 120-510 µg/g creatinine 6-16 years   70-330 µg/g creatinine >16 years   30-200 [&he

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  • Urinalysis

    Urinalysis is the examination of the urine for its physical, chemical and microscopic evaluation. A number of test are done to detect a wide range of disorder including that can be detected through the urine. Reference range of Urinalysis Normal values for urinalysis are: • Color: Yellow (light/pale to dark/ deep amber) • Turbidity/ clarity: […]

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  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)/ Thyrotropin

    Thyroid stimulating hormone is tested to measure the amount of TSH in blood. It is produced by the pituitary gland, where it is produced and released into the blood. The test is done to detect normal to over and under activity of thyroid gland. Reference range of Thyroid stimulating hormone • Lower limit of the […]

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  • Troponins

    Troponins are the protein molecules that are part of cardiac and skeletal muscle. Troponins are not present in smooth muscle cells. Reference range of Troponins Normal troponin level: Troponin Ι: <101µg/L Troponin T: 0-0.1µg/L Normal troponin levels 12 hours after chest pain has started mean a heart attack is unlikely. Interpretation of Troponins Elevated levels […]

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  • Triiodothyronine (T3)

    Triiodothyronine (T3) level test is conducted on individuals who are suspected to have hyperthyroidism or who have symptoms of hyperthyroidism. It can also be done when the thyroid-stimulation hormone (TSH) levels are lower than normal. Reference range of Triiodothyronine Triiodothyronine (T3) reference range Age Free Triiodothyronine (FT3) Total Triiodothyronine Children Not measured in children

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  • Transferrin saturations

    Transferrin saturation is a test used for screening iron content in the body. If transferrin saturation is less than 20%, it indicates iron deficiency in the body whereas if it is more than 50% it suggests iron overload. It can be genetic, whereas it is not important that all patients with genetic abnormality may be […]

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  • Transferrin Receptor

    A blood protein known as Transferrin receptor may be found elevated in individuals with iron deficiency. This test is conducted to measure the level of soluble transferring receptor which help in diagnosing iron deficiency anemia. Transferring is an iron-binding glycoprotein which is found in the plasma. Its main action is to control the level of […]

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  • Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC)

    Total iron-binding capacity is the blood test to detect the quantity of iron in the blood i.e. how well transferring protein can carry iron in the blood. (Iron moves through the blood attached to a protein called transferring.) Reference range of Total iron-binding capacity For men and women: 250 -450 µg/dL. Interpretation of Total iron-binding […]

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  • Thyroxine (T4)

    T4 (Thyroxine) is a hormone which is produced by the thyroid gland. It is produced by thyroid gland as a prohormone that is converted by deiodination to T3. Blood test is conducted to measure the elevated or abnormal level of thyroxine level. Reference range of Thyroxine Limit of total T4 Levels Upper limit of total […]

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  • Thyroid-Binding Globulin

    Thyroid-Binding Globulin (TBG)/ serum thyroxine binding globulin Thyroid-Binding Globulin (TBG) is a blood test used to measure the level of protein that helps in the movement of thyroid hormone throughout the body. It is produced in liver. Reference range of Thyroid-Binding Globulin Generally referral range for TBG is 1.1-2.1mg/dL • If electrophoresis is used, normal […]

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  • Thyroglobulin

    Thyroglobulin test is primarily used as a tumor marker to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer and to monitor for its recurrence. Reference range of Thyroglobulin Thymoglobulin antibody (TgAba) screen < 22 IU/mL Thyroglobulin, tumor marker ≥ 16 years: ≤ 33ng/mL, in newborns < 10 ng/mL ; after birth (after 48 hours) […]

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  • Schirmer’s Test

    Schirmer’s test determines whether the eye produces enough tears to keep eyes moist. Test is done when person complaints of excessive dryness or excessive watering from the eyes. Procedure: Schirmer’s test uses special paper strip inside the lower eyelid of each eye. Both eyes are tested at the same time. Then the eyes are closed […]

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  • Parathyroid Hormone Related Peptide

    PTH-related peptide is produced by some cancers, including those of lungs, breast, head, neck, bladder and ovaries as well as leukemia and lymphoma. High level of PTH related protein may be a cause of elevated calcium levels in many cancer patients. This condition is referred as Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. Reference Range of PTH-related peptide: […]

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  • Protein S

    Protein S is a substance that prevents blood clotting. Protein S is a vitamin K-dependent plasma glycoprotein. It is synthesized in the endothelium. Synthesis of protein S occurs in the liver, endothelial cells, and megakaryocytes. The half-life of protein S is 42 hours. Protein S levels are low at birth and do not reach adult […]

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  • Protein C

    Protein C is a plasma anticoagulant factor required for maintenance of homeostatic balance. Protein C is synthesized in the liver and measurement of protein C activity aids in the diagnosis of thrombotic disorders and liver disease. Protein C is a substance that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see how much […]

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  • Prolactin (PRL)

    Prolactin is a hormone released by the pituitary gland. The prolactin test measures the amount of prolactin in the blood. Reference range of Prolactin • Males: 2-18 ng/mL • Non-pregnant females: 2-29 ng/mL • Pregnant women: 10-209 ng/mL *ng/mL= nanograms per milliliter Interpretation for Prolactin High prolactin level indicates: • Chest wall trauma or irritation […]

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  • Progesterone

    In women: A progesterone test measures the amount of the hormone level in the blood. The progesterone is a female hormone produced by ovaries during release of a mature egg from an ovary during the time of ovulation. Progesterone helps preparing the inner lining of the uterus i.e. endometrium to receive the egg if it […]

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  • Procainamide level

    Procainamide hydrochloride is a class 1a anti arrhythmic that is used to treat a wide variety of ventricular and atrial arrhythmias. Reference Range of Procainamide: Therapeutic concentration of procainamide is 4-8 µg/ml. Interpretation of Procainamide: When procainamide levels become supratherapeutic, the risks of the drug’s side effects become increased. Collection for Procainamide: Specimen:

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  • Porphobilinogen

    Porphobilinogen (PBG) is one of the several types of porphyrin found in your body. Normally our body breaks down porphyrin into heme, an important part of hemoglobin. Porphyrin usually leaves our body through urine or stools. If this process is interrupted, porphyrins such as PBG can build up in our body. Reference Range of Porphobilinogen: […]

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  • Platelet Aggregation

    Platelet aggregation studies test the clumping response of platelets on various platelet activators(e.g., ADP, collagen, arachidonic acid, thrombin, epinephrine, ristocetin) as continuously recorded by a light transmission aggregometer. Reference Range of Platelet aggregation:                   Interpretation of Platelet aggregation: Decreased platelet

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  • Phosphorus

    It plays an important role in how the body uses carbohydrates and fats. It is also needed for the body to make protein for the growth, maintenance, and repair of cells and tissues. Phosphorus also helps the body to make ATP. Reference Range of Phosphorus: In males, the reference range is as follows: • Age […]

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  • Phenytoin level

    It is an epileptic drug with several pharmacologic actions including ion conductance, Na –K ATPase activity, synaptic transmission and neurotransmission and neurotransmitter release; the antiepileptic effects of phenytoin are thought to be related to its action on sodium channels during depolarization preventing repetitive neuronal firing. Reference Range of Phenytoin: The total phenytoin refere

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  • Phenobarbital level

    Phenobarbital is a barbiturate that reduces excitatory synaptic responses by acting on GABA receptors. It is most commonly used in the treatment of seizures including tonic clonic seizures and in status epilepticus. Reference Range of Phenobarbital: Reference range is as follows: • Infants and children ( • Adults: 15-40 µg/ml The minimum toxic level is […]

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  • Pericardial Fluid Analysis

    Pericardial fluid is an ultra filtrate of plasma that lies within the pericardial sac acting as a lubricant between the visceral and parietal layer of pericardium. The space normally contains 15-50 ml of thin, clear, straw colored fluid. Pericardial fluid analysis is used to diagnose the cause of inflammation of pericardium called pericarditis and fluid […]

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  • Parathyroid hormone

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is produced by the 4 parathyroid glands which are situated behind the thyroid gland in the anterior neck. The release of PTH is normally stimulated by low calcium levels in the body. PTH release results in a signal to the bones to release calcium into the bloodstream and also to the kidneys […]

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  • Osmotic Fragility of Erythrocytes test

    Osmotic fragility test (OFT) is used to measure erythrocytes resistant to hemolysis while being exposed to varying degree of dilution of a saline solution. When erythrocytes are exposed to a hypotonic environment, water enters into the cell and causes swelling and eventual lysis. Reference Range of Osmotic fragility test: There is no true consensus among […]

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  • N-Terminal Telopeptide

    In bone physiology, the N-Terminal Telopeptide is a biomarker used to measure the rate of bone turnover.NTX can be measured in urine or serum. Reference Range of N-Terminal Telopeptide: For males the reference range is as follows: • Birth through age 5 years – 576-1763 nmol NTX/mmol creatinine • Age 6-13 years – 307-1367 nmol […]

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  • Neisseria Gonorrhoea Culture

    Gonorrhoea is a common N gonorrhea infection that is transmitted by sexual contact and primarily affects the mucous membranes of urethra and cervix, less frequently of rectum, oropharynx and conjunctivae. In women it leads to endometritis and salpingitis —collectively called pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), the predominant complication and one of the most common causes of […]

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  • Methylmalonic acid

    Methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels are used to evaluate for vitamin B-12 deficiency. Reference Range of Methylmalonic acid: The reference range of MMA is 0-0.4 µmol/L (0-4.7µg/dl). Interpretation of Methylmalonic acid: MMA levels are increased in association with: • Vit. B-12 deficiency • Methylmalonic acidemia • Cobalmine genetic defects and pregnancy • Pernicious anemia • Renal [&hellip

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  • Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)

    Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is the average amount of space occupied by each red blood cell. Reference Range of Mean corpuscular volume: The normal reference range is typically 80-96 fl. Interpretation of Mean corpuscular volume: MCV is average volume of red blood cells. It can be directly measured by automated hematology analyzer or through hematocrit […]

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  • MCH and MCHC

    Mean corpuscular Hemoglobin and Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) Mean corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) is the average mass of hemoglobin per red cell in the sample of blood. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) is a measure of concentration of hemoglobin in a given volume of packed red blood cells. Reference Range of Mean corpuscular Hemoglobin: The […]

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  • Lyme disease

    Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by at least 3 species of bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia.It is the most tick borne disease in the Northern Hemisphere. Borrelia burgdorferi can be grown in the laboratory but cultures generally are not performed because the results are rarely positive. Diagnosis is typically made serologically. The […]

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  • Liver Biopsy/ Percutaneous Biopsy

    A liver biopsy is a procedure to remove a small piece of the liver for examination under microscope for signs of damage or disease. Liver biopsy is performed when there is difficultly to diagnose liver problem with blood test or imaging technique, such as ultrasound and x-ray. A liver biopsy is performed to estimate the […]

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  • Lipoprotein A

    A blood test for specific type lipoprotein A [Lp (a)] is conducted to rule out risk of heart disease. Lipoproteins are molecules made up of proteins and fats. These carry cholesterol and similar substance through the blood. It is the main indicating test for cardiovascular risk prediction across different population. Reference range of Lipoprotein A […]

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  • Lidocaine level

    Lidocaine is an amide type local anesthesia. It is as available as crystalline power solution in alcohol and normal saline. It helps in suppressing ventricular ectopic in the setting of myocardial infarction and increases the ventricular fibrillation threshold. It helps in preventing PVCs from inducing ventricular fibrillation. It is also known as class IB anti […]

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  • Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

    Luteinizing hormone is a hormone produced by gonadotroph cells in the anterior pituitary gland. In females, an acute rise of LH triggers ovulation and development of the corpus luteum. In males, where LH also called as interstitial cell-stimulating hormone stimulates Leydig cell to produce testosterone. Reference Range of Luteinizing hormone: LH levels are normally low […]

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  • Joint-Fluid crystal/ Synovial Fluid Analysis

    Joint fluid analysis is a group of tests that examine synovial i.e. joint fluid. Gout and pseudo gout are the two most common crystalline arthoptheies. These are caused by deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) and calcium pyrophosphate dehydrates (CPPD) crystals respectively. Deposition of these can cause inflammation, pain and destruction of the joints. The microscopic […]

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  • Iron (Fe)

    Serum Iron test is done to check amount of iron in the blood and to see how well iron is metabolized in the body. Iron is the essential component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells carry oxygen. It is also needed for energy, good muscle and organ function. Iron deficiency is a common […]

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  • Insulin

    An insulin test is a blood test that measures the amount of insulin, a hormone that helps in regulation of blood glucose. It is released from the pancreas. Insulin’s most important function is to help the cells to take up glucose. It is also stimulates the production and storage of triglycerides and proteins. Measurement of […]

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  • Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin Hormone (hCG)

    Human chorionic gonadotrophic hormone (hCG) is a hormone produced by the syncytiotrophoblast, a component of the fertilized egg, after conception. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a dimer consisting of a 145 amino acid beta-subunit that is unique to hCG and a 92 amino acid alpha-subunit. The alpha-subunit is identical to that for luteinizing hormone (LH), […]

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  • High Sensitivity C – Reactive Protein

    CRP is an acute–phase reactant synthesized by the liver in response to cytokines released by damaged tissue. CRP is commonly measured to screen for inflammation or infection. CRP is produced by cells in the vascular wall such as endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and also by adipose tissue. Reference Range of C – reactive protein: […]

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  • Hepatitis C Virus

    Hepatitis C Testing Hepatitis C is an infectious disease affecting primarily the liver, caused by the hepatitis C virus. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a small, enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus. The primary route of transmission is intravenous drug use. Hepatitis C tests are used to screen for and diagnose an infection or to […]

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  • Hepatitis B Test

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a DNA virus having lipoprotein-coated surface, which is called the surface antigen. This antigen is the first serologic marker to appear in serum after HBV infection and is excessively produced during the life cycle of the virus. Reference Range of Hepatitis B: The following reference ranges are based on qualitative […]

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  • Hemoglobin Electrophoresis

    Hemoglobin electrophoresis is a used as a screening test to evaluate and identify variant and abnormal hemoglobin. It measures the different types of hemoglobin in blood. Reference Range of Hemoglobin electrophoresis: The reference range is as follows: • HbA1: 95%-98% • HbA2: 1.5%-3.5% • HbF:

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  • Hemoglobin concentration (Hb)

    Hemoglobin concentration test is done to measure the presence of hemoglobin in the blood. Hemoglobin is a protein which is present in red blood cells. Its main function is to carry oxygen to various body organs and tissues. It also helps in transportation of carbon dioxide from organs and tissues to the lungs. A lower […]

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  • Hemoglobin A1c Testing

    Hemoglobin A1c is a specific fraction of hemoglobin A found in healthy individuals as well as individuals with diabetes mellitus. It is formed when the N-terminal valine of the beta chain of hemoglobin A is modified by the addition of a sugar moiety. Reference Range of Hemoglobin A1c : The reference range for healthy adult […]

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  • Helicobacter Pylori Antigen Test

    H pylori antigen is a protein constituent of the H pylori bacterium, which is shed in the human stool. This bacterium route of transmission is via oral-to-oral or fecal-to-oral transmission, typically in childhood. The bacteria start in the gastric antrum, where they are most abundant .Most of the bacteria invades the mucous layer, but some […]

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  • Glucagon

    A glucagon test measures the amount of a hormone called glucagon in your blood. Glucagon is produced by cells in the pancreas. It help to control blood sugar levels. Glucagon is a peptide compromised of 29 amino acids in a single chain. It is produced by the alpha-cells in the exocrine pancreas and secreted by […]

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  • Genital human papilloma virus

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a non enveloped double-stranded DNA virus and a member of the Papovaviridae family. HPV has a predilection for differentiating squamous epithelium, where it infects and transforms to host cells. HPV-related cellular aberrancies in females are concentrated in the squamocolumnar region of the ectocervix, making this region ideal site for diagnostic sampling. […]

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  • Gastrin

    Gastrin is the major hormone that controls the release of acid in the stomach. When there is food in the stomach, gastrin is released into the blood. As the acid level rises in your stomach and intestines, your body normally makes the less gastrin. Hormone gastrin, which is secreted by G cells of the gastric […]

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  • Gamma-Glutamyltransferase

    Gamma-Glutamyltransferase (GGT) is an enzyme that is found in cell membrane of much tissue majorly in liver, kidney and pancreas. It is also found in other tissues like intestine, spleen, heart, brain and seminal vesicles. Kidney has its highest concentration, but liver is considered the source of normal enzyme activity. Reference range of Gamma-Glutamyltransferase Reference […]

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  • Fungal Culture

    Fungal culture are used to evaluate for suspected fungal disease. Fungi can be pathogens, colonizers, or contaminants. Correlation of the patient clinical condition with culture is necessary for optimal patient care. Reference range of Fungal culture Sample test result: Negative *If positive, fungus will be identified. Interpretation for Fungal culture Positive culture result indicates presence [&

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  • Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

    FSH stands for follicle-stimulating hormone. This hormone is released by the anterior pituitary gland. In women, FSH stimulates production of an eggs and a hormone called estradiol during the first half of the menstrual cycle. In men, FSH stimulates production of sperm. Reference range of Follicle stimulating hormone Male: • Pre-puberty: 0-5.0 mlU/mL • At […]

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  • Folate (Folic Acid)

    Folate level which is also known as folic acid and vitamin B9 is primarily used in the diagnosis of megaloblastic anemia. Reference range of Folate Plasma folate level: • Adults: 2-20 ng/mL or 4.5-45.3 nmol/L • Children: 5-21 ng/mL or 11.3-47.6 nmol/l • Infants:14-15 ng/mL or 31.7-115.5nmol/L RBC folate level: • Adults: 140-628 ng/mL or […]

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  • Flecainide

    Flecainide is used mainly for treatment and prevention of ventricular arrhythmia, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, and paroxysmal atrial flutter. Reference range of Flecainide • In children: 200-800 ng/mL • In adults: 0.2-1.0 µg/mL • Plasma concentration : >1.0µg/mL (causing higher cardiac rate) • Therapeutic concentration: 0.2 to 1.0 µg/mL Interp

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  • Fibrinogen

    Fibrinogen/ Serum Fibrinogen/Plasma Fibrinogen/ Factor I/ Hypofibrinogenemia Test Fibrinogen is a soluble protein in the plasma that is broken down to fibrin by the enzyme thrombin to form clots. Fibrinogen is a protein produced by the liver. This protein helps stop bleeding by helping blood clots to form. Reference range of Serum Fibrinogen • Fibrinogen […]

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  • Fibrin and Fibrinogen-Degradation Products

    Fibrinogen degradation product (FDP) is the substance left behind when clots dissolve in the blood. FDP test is usually done to diagnose the disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Reference range of Fibrinogen degradation product FDP level Level Conventional unit Less than 10µg/mL SI unit Less than 10mg/L Considered critical More than 40mg/mL Interpretation for Fibrinogen degradation [&hel

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  • Factor –Inhibitor Assay

    Factor-inhibitor Assay is done after an adequate infusion of VII, VIII, IX, XI and V and bleeding continues. Although nearly all procoagulants have an inhibitor, the inhibitor to factor VIII is the most common. Reference range of Factor-inhibitor Assay Under normal circumstances, no factor inhibitors are present. Interpretation for Factor-inhibitor Assay Factor inhibitors are reported […]

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  • Factor XIII Screen

    Factor XIII, an enzyme that cross-links fibrin, belongs to the blood coagulation system. Screening for factor XIII is also known as fibrin-stabilizing factor and is performed when its absence is suspected. Reference range of Factor XIII Qualitatively, factor XIII levels are referred as decreased or normal. Quantitation of the enzyme’s level is carried out in […]

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  • Factor XII, Hageman factor

    Factor XII is also known as Hageman factor. It is indicated when factor XII deficiency is suspected. This test should be done if one had abnormal results on the partial thromboplastin time (PTT) blood-clotting test, or if one of the blood relatives was diagnosed with factor XII deficiency. Reference range of Factor XII The reference […]

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  • Factor XI

    Factor XI, Plasma thromboplastin antecedent assay/ Clotting factor XI Factor XI measures the amount of factor XI (plasma thromboplastin antecedent) in blood. It is used to evaluate and manage blood-clotting disorders. The so-called contact factors include factor XI, factor XII, high-molecular-weight kininogen (HK), and prekallikrein (PK). Factor XI is synthesized in the liver and megakaryocytes [&

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  • Factor X

    Factor X is synthesized in the liver and vitamin K is required for its production. Reference range of Factor X The reference range of factor X is 70%-150% of normal value. Interpretation for Factor X Higher level indicates: • Pregnancy • Taking oral contraceptive pills Lower level indicates: • Amyloidosis • Deficiency of factor X […]

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  • Factor VIII

    Factor VIII, Anti hemophilic Factor/ Plasma Factor VIII antigen This test is used to find the cause of too much bleeding (decreased blood clotting), or if the family member is known to have hemophilia A. The test may also be done to see how well treatment for hemophilia A is working. Reference range of Anti […]

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  • Factor VII

    Factor VII circulates as a single-chain zymogen of molecular weight of about 50,000 daltons. It has the shortest half-life of the procoagulant factors, approximately 3-6 hours. The human factor VII gene is located on chromosome 13, is close to the gene for factor X. Embryos deficient in factor VII developed normally without evidence of hemorrhage. […]

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  • Factor V

    Factor V, Para hemophilia / Owren’s disease Factor V is a large glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 330,000 daltons and has a plasma half-life of about 12 hours, with some reports of half-life up to 36 hours. Its function as a cofactor in converting factor II to active factor II. It is proteolyzed by […]

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  • Factor IX

    Factor IX, Plasma thromboplastin component (PTC)/ Christmas factor assay Factor IX is a blood test that measures the activity of factor IX which is most important substance involved in blood clotting i.e. coagulation. Factor IX (plasma thromboplastin component [PTC]) is produced in the liver. It is a single-chain zymogen with a molecular weight of 57 […]

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  • Factor II, Prothrombin

    Prothrombin is the precursor of thrombin in the coagulation pathway. It is synthesized in the liver, as other vitamin K- dependent proteins are, and has a molecular weight of 72kd. The plasma half-life of prothrombin is approximately 60 hours. Reference range of Prothrombin The reference range is between 70% -120% of normal values. Interpretation for […]

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  • Estradiol (E2)

    An estradiol test is done to measure the amount of estradiol in the blood. It is the most important form of estrogen found in the body which is made and released from the ovaries, adrenal cortex and placenta which forms during pregnancy to feed a developing baby. It is considered very important for growth of […]

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  • Eosinophils

    Eosinophils are white blood cells that play a role in fighting parasite, viral and bacterial infections. They also play role in other disease states. Eosinophils were named so because of acid loving. Reference range of Eosinophils: • Eosinophils blood (%): 0.0-6.0. • Eosinophil blood count: 30- 350. Interpretation of Eosinophils: Increased eosinophil count may occur […]

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  • DEXA SCAN/ Bone Density Test

    DEXA scan stand for Dual Energy X-ray Absortiomentry. It is the most widely used method to measure bone mineral density (BDM test) test for several conditions. It is a simple, painless radiographic technique to measure bone density and related disorders. DEXA scan beams low dose x-ray from two different sources towards the bone being examined. […]

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  • Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S)

    DHEA-S is a C-19 steroid hormone and one of 3 androgens secreted by adrenal gland. In the adrenal gland and liver the DHEA is converted by DHEA sulphotransferase to dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate. Reference Range of DHEA-S Reference range given below: Tanner stage Male Female Stage I

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  • Dexamethasone CRH test

    Dexamethasone/Corticotrophin Releasing Hormone Corticotrophin releasing Hormone is a 41 amino acid peptide noted with sequence homology among patients and is major secretagogus of pituitary corticotrophin. Reference Range of Corticotrophin releasing Hormone Serum Corticotrophin levels are as follows: Plasma concentration Peak level Increase from baseline Time to peak level Corticotrophin 20 pg/ml

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  • Bone Marrow Aspiration

    Bone marrow aspiration /sterna tap Iliac/ crest tap Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bone that helps to form blood cells. It is found in the hollow part of most bones. The marrow is where red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets are forms and are known as stem cells. A bone marrow […]

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  • Blood Uric Acid Test

    The blood uric acid test measures the amount of uric acid in blood. Uric acid is produced by the breakdown of purines, which is commonly found in foods like anchovies, dried beans, peas and beer etc. The kidney filters out most of the uric acid in the blood and eliminates it from the body in […]

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  • Barium Swallow

    A barium swallow is a radiographic (X-ray) examination of the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract especially the pharynx, the esophagus, stomach and small intestine. Generally these organs are not visible on x-ray; barium swallow temporarily coats the lining of the esophagus, stomach and the intestine making the outline of these organs visible on the x-ray picture. […]

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  • Von Willebrand Factor (Ristocetin cofactor)

    Von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a multimeric adhesive glycoprotein. It is an important for haemostatic interactions between platelets and vessels and between platelets and other platelets. In circulating blood, both plasma and platelets contain vWF. Reference Range of Von Willebrand Factor: The reference range of vWF antigen is 55%-200%. Interpretation of Von Willebrand Factor: The […]

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  • Urinary Free Cortisol

    Urinary free cortisol is used in diagnosis of hypercortisolism caused by Cushing Syndrome. Reference range of Urinary free cortisol: • Age 3-8 years – 1.4-20 µg/24 h • Age 9-12 years – 2.6-37 µg/24 h • Age 13-17 years – 4-56 µg/24 h • Age 18 years or older – 3.5-45 µg/24 h Interpretation of […]

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  • Stool ova and Parasite Test

    Stool ova and parasites exam is a laboratory test to determine if a stool sample contains parasites or eggs (ova) that are associated with intestinal infections. Parasites causing intestinal infections in humans include protozoa and helminthes. Examples of intestinal protozoa include flagellates (G lamblia), amoebae (E histolytica), sporozoans (Cryptosporidium), and ciliates (Balantidium coli). He

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  • Sputum Culture

    Sputum culture is a test to detect and identify the bacteria or fungi that infect the lungs or breathing passage. Expectorated sputum allows for examination of the lower respiratory tract secretions. The most common pathogens detected with a sputum culture are bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumonia, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella species. Reference Range […]

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  • Somatostanin

    Somatostanin is also known as Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) .It is a peptide hormone that controls the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation. Somatostatin is a polypeptide that is released in the gastrointestinal tract and the hypothalamus. Its function as an inhibitor for many other hormones including gastrin, cholecystokinin, glucagon, growth hormone, i

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  • Serum Tryptase

    Tryptase are proteases located in mast cell granules and in small quantities in basophils. The determination of tryptase value in serum has proven to be useful as a marker of mast cell activation in both anaphylaxis and mastocytosis. Reference range of Serum Tryptase: The reference range of serum tryptase is less than 11.4 µg/L. Interpretation […]

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  • Serum Protein Electrophoresis

    Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) is a method of separating proteins based on their net charge, size, and shape. The two major types of protein present in the serum are albumin and the globulin proteins. Albumin is the major protein component of serum but globulins comprise much smaller fraction of the total serum protein. Reference Range […]

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  • Serum Osteocalcin

    Osteocalcin is a noncollagenous, 49 amino acid glutamate-rich polypeptide bone matrix protein with a molecular weight of about 5800 kDa. Osteoblasts produce osteocalcin and incorporate it into the bone matrix. Osteocalcin is released into the circulation from the matrix during bone resorption and therefore it is considered a marker of bone turnover rather than a […]

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  • Serum Calcium

    All cells need calcium in order to work. Calcium helps to build strong bones and teeth. It is important for heart functions, and helps in muscle contraction, nerve signaling and blood clotting. Reference Range of Serum Calcium: The reference range for serum calcium is as follows: Males • Age 1-14 years: 9.6-10.6 mg/dl • Age […]

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  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Reverse transcription is the synthesis of complementary DNA sequence from an RNA template using reverse transcriptase which is an RNA dependent DNA polymerase. Reference Range of Reverse transcription: The diagnosis of many infectious diseases both viral and bacterial may include the use of reverse transcriptase –polymerase chain reaction. Collection for Reverse transcription: Specimen: Serum Co

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  • Reticulocyte count and Reticulocyte Hemoglobin content

    The absolute reticulocyte count is the number of reticulocytes in a volume of blood which is a marker of RBC production. Reticulocytes are immature anucleated, erythroid cells (RBCs) with residual detectable amounts of RNA. RBCs are produced and mature in the bone marrow, and the majority are released in a fully mature form. The reticulocyte […]

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  • Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW)

    Red cell distribution width is a parameter that measures variation in red blood cell size or red blood cell volume. Reference Range of Red cell distribution width: The reference range for RDW is as follows: • RDW-SD 39-46 fl • RDW-CV 11.6-14.6 % in adults Interpretation for Red cell distribution width: RDW is a red […]

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  • PTT-Lupus

    Partial Thromboplastin Time-Lupus Anticoagulant Screen Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT) is a blood test that looks how long it takes for blood to clot. It can help to tell bleeding and clotting problems. Reference Range of PTT -Lupus Anticoagulant Screen • Full-infant (age, 0-5 d) – 25-60 seconds • Full-term infant (age, 6 d to 3 […]

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  • Potassium

    Potassium is a very significant body mineral, important to both cellular and electrical function. It is one of the main blood minerals called “electrolytes”. Reference Range of Potassium The reference ranges of serum/plasma potassium levels are: Adults: 3.5-5.1 mEq/L or mmol/L Children: 3.4-4.7 mEq/L or mmol/L The reference ranges of urinary potassium levels are: Adults: […]

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  • Microalbumin

    Microalbumin is used to detect damage to kidneys in people with diabetes /high blood pressure. Microalbumin test checks the presence of protein in the urine which is called albumin (albumin is found in blood and filtered by kidneys). Microalbuminuria is caused by following conditions – Kidney damage from diabetes, high blood pressure, heart failure. Interpretation […]

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  • Ketones

    Ketones (also called ketone bodies) are the substances produced by the body as it breaks down fats for energy and this process is called ketosis. Normally the body obtains the energy from sugars (carbohydrates). A person may begin to break down fats and produce ketones because of: • Having too little insulin, which prevents the […]

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  • Direct Antiglobulin Test

    The DAT detects the presence of antibodies or complement on the surface of red cells. When IgG coats red blood cells showing agglutination immediately, direct antiglobulin test is positive. Reference Range of Direct Antiglobulin Test: The reference range is as follows- • Negative: no clumping or agglutination Interpretation of Direct Antiglobulin Test: A direct antiglobulin […]

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  • Dexamethasone Suppression Test

    Dexamethasone is in class of steroids that prevents the release of substances in the body causing inflammation. Dexamethasone is helpful in treating different conditions –allergic disorders, skin disorders, ulcerative colitis, arthritis, psoriasis. Reference range of Dexamethasone: Cortisol levels decrease after receiving dexamethasone. Low dose: • Overnight: 8 a.m. plasma cortisol < 1.8 mcg/d

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  • Serum Creatinine

    Creatinine is important in assessing renal function because it has several interesting properties. In blood, it is a marker of glomerular filtration rate. Creatinine is freely filtered through the glomerulus and is not appreciably reabsorbed or secreted by the renal tubules. Creatinine forms at a relatively constant rate in muscle. Chemically, it is the anhydride […]

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  • Creatine phosphokinase (CPK)

    Creatine phosphokinase is an enzyme which is found mainly in the heart, brain, and skeletal muscle. Reference range of Creatine phosphokinase 10 – 120 micrograms per liter (mcg/L) Interpretation of Creatine phosphokinase Creatine kinase is elevated in all types of muscular dystrophy. High level of CPK arise due to any injury or stress of muscular […]

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  • BRAF Gene Mutation Tests

    Interpretation of BRAF Gene Mutation Tests: Braf and melanoma Approximately 40-60% of cutaneous melanomas carry mutations in the Braf gene. About 90% of these mutations are found to be V600E. Vemurafenib (PLX4032) is a highly selective and potent inhibitor of braf V600E. It has marked antitumor effects against melanoma cell lines with the braf V600E […]

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  • Partial thromboplastin time, Activated

    PTT and aPTT are used to test for the same function however in aPTT an activator is added to speed up the clotting time and results in a narrow range. Reference Range of Partial thromboplastin time: Reference range of aPTT is 30-40 seconds. Interpretation of Partial thromboplastin time: A prolonged aPTT result may indicate: • […]

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  • Cryoproteins (cryoglobulin)

    Description of cryoglobulins Cryoglobulins are single or mixed immunoglobulins that undergo reversible precipitation at low temperatures produced by B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. After undergoing precipitation and exposure to lower temperatures, cryoglobulin-containing immune complexes form and trigger a systemic inflammatory response. Cryoglobulins preferentially target the kidney and ski

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  • Chlamydia trachomatis culture

    Description of Chlamydia trachomatis culture Chlamydia trachomatis is a small gram-negative, obligate intracellular parasite that is deficient in energy metabolism. Its host cells are primarily epithelial cells, which line the conjunctiva, respiratory tract, urogenital tract and rectum. Reference range of Chlamydia trachomatis culture Chlamydia trachomatosis is a gram-negative, obligate intracellu

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  • C-Terminal telopeptide

    Description of C-terminal telopeptide The C-terminal telopeptide is a serum biomarker used to measure the rate of bone turnover. It can be useful in assisting clinicians to determine a patient’s nonsurgical treatment response as well as evaluate a patient’s risk of developing complications during healing following surgical intervention. Although urinary hydroxyproline was previously on

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  • Brain-Type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)

    Description of brain-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) Brain-Type Natriuretic Peptide also known as basic natriuretic peptide is a 32 amino acid polypeptide secreted by the ventricles of the heart in response to excessive stretching of heart muscle cells that is cardiomyocytes. The release of BNP is modulated by calcium ions. Heart failure is a leading cause […]

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  • Beta hydroxybutyrate

    Description of beta hydroxybutyrate test β-hydroxybutyrate is one of the ketone bodies. Ketone bodies can provide as much as two thirds of the brain’s energy needs. Ketone bodies are strong organic acids that fully dissociate in blood. When ketone body production becomes uncontrollable, the buffering systems are saturated, and blood pH drops; this is a […]

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  • Antithyroglobulin antibody

    Description of Antithyroglobulin antibody Antithyroglobulin antibody is a test to measure antibodies to a protein called thyroglobulin, which is found in thyroid cells. The three types of thyroid autoantigens that generate antibodies in autoimmune thyroid disease such as Graves ’ disease or hashimoto thyroiditis are thyroglobulin thyroid microsomal antigen and thyrotropin receptor. Conditions as

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  • Anti-streptolysin O Titer

    Description of anti-streptolysin O Titer test Anti-streptolysin O is the antibody made against streptolysin O, an immunogenic, oxygen-liable hemolytic toxin produced by most strains of group A and many strains of group C and G streptococci. The O in the name stands for oxygen-liable, the other related toxin being oxygen-stable streptolysin –S. The main function […]

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  • Anti –RA33 Antibody

    Description of anti-RA33 antibody test Anti-RA33 antibodies are typically associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The hall mark feature of this condition is persistent symmetric polyarthritis that affects the hands and feet, although any joint lined by a synovial membrane may be involved. Extra-articular involvement of organs such as the skin, heart, lungs and eyes can […]

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  • Antiphospholipid antibodies

    Description of antiphospholipid antibodies Antiphospholipid (APL) antibodies are group of antibodies directed against epitopes on plasma proteins that are uncovered by binding of these proteins to anionic phospholipids on plasma membranes. The most commonly used tests to detect APL include lupus anticoagulant (LAC), anticardiolipin (ACL) antibodies, and anti-β2-glycoprotein І antibodies. Referen

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  • Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Autoantibody, Cytoplasmic (c-ANCA)

    Description Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Autoantibody, Cytoplasmic (c-ANCA) Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are found in several vasculitic conditions, including granulomatosis with polyangiitis, microscopic polyangiitis, and Churg-Strauss syndrome. Reference Range of Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Autoantibody, Cytoplasmic (c-ANCA) Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are found in

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  • Antimitochondrial antibody

    Description of antimitichondrial antibody test Anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are auto antibodies, consisting of immunoglobulin are formed against mitochondria, primarily mitochondria in cells of the liver. The presence of AMA’s in the blood and serum of the patient is indicative of several autoimmune diseases such as primary biliary cirrhosis. Primary biliary cirrhosis is a progressive inf

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  • Antimicrobial susceptibility

    Description of antimicrobial susceptibility test Antimicrobial susceptibility tests are used to determine which specific antibiotics a particular bacteria or fungus is sensitive to. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial and fungal isolates is a common and important technique in most laboratories. The results of these tests are used for selection of the most appropriate antimicrobial ag

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  • Anti-Xa assay (heparin assay)

    Description of anti-Xa assay test The anti- factor Xa assay is helpful in measuring plasma heparin levels and to monitor anticoagulant therapy. Heparin is a mixture of negatively charged glycosaminoglycans that have anticoagulant properties due to their interaction with the natural anticoagulant antithrombin. The interaction leads to the conformational change of antithrombin, increasing the time [

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  • Anti -Smooth-Muscle Antibody

    Description of anti smooth muscle antibody Anti-smooth muscle antibodies are antibodies formed against smooth muscle. These antibodies are associated with autoimmune hepatitis. These antibodies are present in the sera of patients who are suffering from chronic liver disease. There are many other conditions where anti-smooth-muscle antibodies are seen such as viral hepatitis, malignancy, heroin use

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  • Anti-RNP antibody

    Description of anti-RNP antibody test Anti-RNP antibodies are the antibodies directed against the U1 particle of an extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) named ribonucleoprotein which is made up of complex proteins and a small nuclear RNA named U1. Reference range of anti-RNP antibody test A positive result is considered when the value of the anti RNP […]

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  • Alanine aminotransferase

    Description of alanine aminotransferase test An alanine aminotransferase (ALT) test measures the amount of this enzyme in the blood. ALT is found mainly in the liver but also in smaller amounts in the kidneys, heart, muscles and pancreas. Originally this enzyme is reffered to as serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT). Normally, a low level of […]

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  • Activated protein C resistance (Factor V leiden)

    Description of activated protein C resistance test Activated protein C is the enzymatically active form of protein C after proteolytic cleavage by thrombomodulin-bound thrombin. An important natural anticoagulant, APC inactivates factors Va and VІΙa. APC resistance is a hypercoagubility disorder in which factor V cannot be inactivated by APC. . Reference range of activated protein […]

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  • Activated clotting time

    Description of activated clotting time Activated clotting time (ACT), also known as activated coagulation time is a test of coagulation. Activated clotting time is a point-of-care coagulation test diagnosed to monitor heparin therapy in the clinical situations in which intensive anticoagulation is required. The activated clotting time is used to monitor the effect of high-dose […]

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  • Acid base interpretation

    Description for acid base interpretation test Maintenance of the acid-balance is a co ordinate effort by the kidneys and lungs. In combination these organs excrete approximately 15,000 nmol of CO2 and 50-100 mEq of nonvolatile acid daily. Reference range of acid base interpretation test The reference age of serum bicarbonate vary by age in both […]

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  • Acetylcholine receptor antibody

    Description of acetylcholine receptor antibody Acetylcholine receptor antibody is a protein found in the blood of most of the patients suffering from myasthenia gravis. This antibody affects a chemical that sends signals from nerves to muscles and between nerves in the brain. An acetylcholine receptor is an integral membrane protein that responds to the binding […]

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  • 21-Hydroxylase Antibodies

    Description of 21-hydroxylase antibodies 21-hydrosylase antibodies are markers of autoimmune Addison disease, which may manifest alone or as part of type І or type ІІ polyglandular autoimmune syndrome. These antibodies may be present even before the endocrine function is decreased. The presence of adrenal cortex autoantibodies in the serum is associated with Addison disease. Reference […

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  • Calcium, Ionized

    Description Calcium is the fifth most abundant element and is the most prominent cation in the body of human beings. It is found that approximately 1-1.3 kg of calcium can be found in a healthy adult, 99% of this calcium is found in the skeleton in the form of hydroxyapatite, and the remaining 1% is […]

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  • Epinephrine

    Description Epinephrine is important CNS neurotransmitters and has vital roles in the autonomic regulation of many functions of homeostasis, including intestinal and bronchial smooth muscle tone, vascular tone, glucose metabolism and cardiac rate and contractility. Reference range of epinephrine Epinephrine, a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal gland, is an important CNS neurotransmitter and ha

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  • C-Peptide

    Description C-peptide is a protein made of 31 amino acids that helps in connecting two parts of insulin. It is released from the beta-cells of pancreas during breakdown of insulin from proinsulin. It is mainly excreted by the kidney in urine, and its half life is 3-4 times longer than that of insulin. Formation of […]

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  • Blood culture

    Description Blood cultures are helpful to identify microorganisms in the blood and to assist in guiding antimicrobial therapy. Common causes or sources of bacteremia include the following • Abscesses. • Surgical wounds. • Biliary tract. • Prosthetic cardiac valves. • Respiratory tract. • Genitourinary tract. Reference range The reference range for blood culture is no […]

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  • Antiadrenal antibody

    In the autoimmune diseases of adrenal gland, serum antibodies against several of steroidogenic enzymes such as P450scc, P450c17 and P450c21 are present. These enzymes play a role in side-chain cleavage and hydroxylation of steroids. The presence of antiadrenal auto antibodies in serum is characteristic of autoimmune Addison disease. Among these auto antibodies, those to the […]

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  • Anion Gap

    Description The anion gap is the difference between primary measured cations (sodium Na+ and potassium K+) and the primary measured anions (chloride Cl- and bicarbonate and potassium K+) in serum. The equation itself is used as an estimate to measure the unmeasurable anions in blood. The following equation is used to calculate the serum anion […]

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  • Ammonia

    Description of ammonia Ammonia is a compound produced by intestinal bacteria and cells during the digestion of protein. This ammonia is then transported through the portal vein to the liver, where the ammonia is converted to glutamine, which is metabolized by the kidneys into urea to be excreted. In condition if the liver is diseased […]

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  • Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)

    Description of adrenocorticotropic hormone Adrenocorticotroic hormone (ACTH) is a polypeptide tropic hormone composed of 39 amino acids that is secreted by corticotroph cells in the anterior pituitary gland. ACTH maintains the adrenal gland size, structure and function and induces steroid production by adrenal gland and secretion. ACTH is secreted in two patterns. • The circadian […]

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  • Acid Phosphatase

    Acid phosphatases are enzymes that are capable of hydrolyzing phosphate esters in an acidic environment. Acid phosphatese is also produced in prostate was first serum marker for prostate cancer and was widely used to determine the staging of cancer and post treatment monitoring. Reference range of acid phosphatase The reference value for acid phosphatase is […]

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  • Acetaminophen level

    Description of acetaminophen Acetaminophen is medicine commonly used as an antipyretic and analgesic. In cases of liver failure when drug dosage is increased above the normal levels to be given it lead to acetaminophen toxicity and the toxic dose of acetaminophen is 150 mg/kg. Peak plasma concentrations are seen within 2 hours of ingestion. The […]

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  • Urinary 17-Hydroxyprogesterone

    Description of 17-hydroxyprogesterone 17 hydroxy progesterone is a steroid which is derived or formed by the metabolic action on progesteroneand 17 hydroxy pregnenolone by enzymes. This steroid is produced in the glands, the gonads and adrenal glands. It is excreted into the urine in conjugated and unconjugated forms of 17-hydroxy progesterone and as pregnanetriol. 17-hydroxyprogesterone […

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  • 17-Hydroxyprogesterone, Serum

    Description Hydroxyprogesterone (17-OH progesterone) is a C 21 steroid hormone during the synthesis of glucocorticoids and sex hormones. 17-hydroxyprogesterone is derived from progesterone via 17-hydroxylase. 17-hydroxyprogesterone is natural progesterone and increases in the third trimester primarily due to fetal adrenal production. Reference range Serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone show following refe

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  • 5’-Nucleotidase

    Description of 5’-nucleotidase 5’nucleotidase (5NT) is an intrinsic glycoprotein of membranes of cells that is present as an enzyme in a wide variety of human cells. This glycoprotein helps to increase the hydrolysis of the phosphate group from 5’-nucleotides, which result in corresponding nucleosides. Reference range of 5’nucleotidase The reference range of 5’-nucleotidase is 2-15U/L. [

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  • 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid (5-HIAA)

    Description of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid 5-HIAA is a form of metabolite of serotonin, serotonin which is a chemical transmitter needed by the brain and special cells in the lung and gastrointestinal tract. Once the cells of body use serotonin it is degraded in the liver and again broken down into its metabolites, in which one metabolite […]

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  • Ethanol

    Ethanol level can be measured by blood, urine, saliva, or breath tests. Toxic concentration is dependent on individual tolerance and the usage level is greater than 300-400 mg/dL can be fatal due to respiratory depression.  *Conversion unit: One millimole of ethanol per liter of blood is equal to 4.61 milligrams of ethanol per 100 milliliters […]

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  • Transferrin saturation

    Transferrin saturation is a test used for screening iron content in the body. If transferrin saturation is less than 20%, it indicates iron deficiency in the body whereas if it is more than 50% it suggests iron overload. It can be genetic, whereas it is not important that all patients with genetic abnormality may be […]

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  • High/Low Prolactin Levels

    Prolactin is also produced in uterus, breast, brain and adipose tissue. Prolactin inhibit two hormones necessary for ovulation: follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). When you have high levels of prolactin in your blood (a condition called hyperprolactinemia), you will not ovulate and this will result in infertility. This anovulation can also […]

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  • Creatine Kinase (CPK)

    Creatine phosphokinase is an enzyme which is found mainly in the heart, brain, and skeletal muscle.

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  • Antithrombin / Functional Antithrombin III / AT III

    Antithrombin III is a blood test which measures the amount of antithrombin III .
    Anti-thrombin (AT III) is a protein which controls blood clotting

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  • CA 19-9/Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9; Cancer Antigen-GI

    CA 19-9 is a tumor marker .CA 19-9 is helpful in differentiating between cancer of pancreas and other conditions

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  • CA 27-29

    CA 27-29 is a tumor marker mainly used to check breast cancer.
    CA 27-29 is found in the blood of patient suffering from breast cancer.

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  • Magnesium

    Magnesium is a mineral.
    Magnesium is essential mineral in all enzyme processes .Magnesium stabilizes the structure of DNA and RNA and is related to calcium and potassium metabolism.
    Magnesium lowers the blood pressure .

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  • Reptilase Time

    Reptilase time is an blood test which is used for detecting deficiency in fibrinogen
    Reptilase time is a coagulation test to assess fibrin formation from fibrinogen in plasma.

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  • Antithyroid Antibody

    Reference Range
    • Thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb): Less than 35 IU/mL
    • Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin antibody (TSI): Less than 140% of basal activity
    • Thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb): Less than 20 IU/mL

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  • Apolipoprotein A-I (Apo-A1)

    Apolipoprotein A-I is a structural and functional protein constituting approximately 70% of the protein in HDL.
    Apolipoprotein-A1 is produced in the liver and intestines.

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  • Apolipoprotein B

    Apolipoprotein B levels evaluate the risk for cardiovascular disease

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  • C – Peptide

    C-peptide is released from the pancreatic beta-cells during cleavage of insulin from proinsulin .C-peptide is mainly excreted by the kidneys.

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  • Imipramine Level

    Imipramine is an anti-depressant used for treating depression, panic attacks, enuresis. Imipramine is an anti-cholinergic .

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  • Serum Cortisol

    Serum cortisol is the main adrenal glucocorticoid and plays a great role in glucose metabolism .
    Adrenal cortisol production is regulated by adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH ) which is synthesized by pituitary gland in response to hypothalamic corticotrophin –releasing hormone
    Serum cortisol test helps in determini

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  • Serum Osmolality

    Serum osmolality measures the amount of chemicals dissolved in the liquid (serum) of the blood .Serum osmolality test is done by a blood sample.
    Serum osmolality is controlled by hormone ADH( anti-diuretic hormone ), not drinking enough of water leads to increased concentration if chemicals in blood which further leads to increa

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  • Procalcitonin

    Procalcitonin ( PCT ) is the peptide precursor of calcitonin , a hormone synthesized by the parafollicular C cells of the thyroid and is involved in calcium homeostasis .
    Procalcitonin is produced by neuroendocrine cells of lung and intestine .Increased procalcitonin level during inflammation is associated with bacterial endoto

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  • Diuretic screening

    Diuretics are used in treatment of liver cirrhosis, hypertension, certain kidney disease, heart failure. Diuretics also have antihypertensive actions .Diuretics is also used by individuals with eating disorders who abuse diuretic in attempt at weight loss. The various methods for screening of Diuretic agents provide the entire useful

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  • Hydroxyproline

    Hydroxyproline is a non-essential amino acid which I required for collagen production .Hydoxyproline is derived from proline and is used in structural proteins including collagen, connective tissue in mammals.
    Hydroxyproline is a major component of protein collagen.

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  • ANA ( Antinuclear antibodies test )

    Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) test identifies the antibodies present in serum. Most of these antibodies are IgM , IgG , IgA . An ANA test detects antinuclear antibodies in the blood.
    ANA is the screening method for systemic rheumatic diseases such as –
    • SLE (systemic lupus erthyematosus )
    • Mi

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  • Haptoglobin (HPT; Hemoglobin-binding Protein; Hp)

    Haptoglobin testing is used for detecting and evaluating hemolytic anemia and distinguishing it from anemia due to other causes.

    Haptoglobin test is ordered when a person has symptoms have symptoms of –
    Weakness, paleness along with findings of hemolytic anemia.

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  • Acetoacetate

    Aceoacetate is one of ketones created by fat metabolism.

    Reference Range
    The reference range for acetoacetate is 5-30 µg/mL.

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  • Aldolase

    Aldolase is an enzyme which is responsible for breaking glucose products into energy.
    Aldolase is a cytoplasmic enzyme which is responsible for converting sugar into energy .It specifically does the splitting of aldol, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, into the triose phosphates dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glyceraldehydes 3-p

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  • Thrombin time

    Thrombin time is a screening coagulation test designed to assess fibrin formation from fibrinogen in plasma.

    Reference Range
    Reference range for Thrombin time (TT) is for less than 20 seconds

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  • Syphilis Detection test

    Syphilis test detects the antibodies to the bacterium causing Syphilis ( Treponema Pallidum) in blood  and body fluid .

    Tests used in screening for syphilis include:
    • Venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test. The VDRL test checks for an antibody that can be produced in people who have syphilis.

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  • Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis /Spinal Fluid Analysis

    Reference Range
    Opening pressure - 90-180 mm H2 O (with patient lying in lateral position)
    Appearance and color - Clear, colorless
    Antibodies, viral DNA - None
    Bacteria (Gram stain, culture, VDRL) - Negative
    pH - 7.28-7.32
    Total protein - 15-60 mg/dL

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  • Erythropoietin test /Serum erythropoietin /EPO

    Erythropoietin test (EPO ) is a glycoprotein hormone which controls erythroiesis , or red blood cell production .
    Erythropoietin test measures the amount of a hormone called erythropoietin (EPO) in blood. Erythropoietin levels in blood are quite low in the absence of anemia, at around 10 mU/ml
    Erythropoietin has wide variet

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  • Carbamazepine

    Carbamazepine is an anti-convulsant and mood stabilizing drug which is primarily used in treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder and trigeminal neuralgia.
    Carbamazepine test measures and monitor the amount of carbamazepine in the blood for determining the level of drug 
    Carbamazipine test is ordered when in case a per

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  • Fructosamines

    Fructosamines are compounds formed by a nonenzymatic reaction between glucose and an amino group on a protein.
    Fructosamine measurement enables assessment of long-term glycemic control.
    The best-known fructosamine is hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). With a half-life of 120 days (the half-life of a red blood cell), the HbA1c measure

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  • Gentamicin

    Gentamicin is a water-soluble antibiotic which is purified from fungus –Micromonospora purpurea .
    Gentamicin eliminates the bacteria causing infections – in skin, bon e, joint, stomach, blood and urinary tract infections.
    Gentamicin acts by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome leading to inhibiti

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  • Herpes Simplex Viral Culture (HSV )

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) causes vesicular rashes of the oropharyngeal area or external genitalia.
    HSV sometimes can cause disseminated infection – with multi-organ involvement such as skin, eyes and CNS (central nervous system)

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  • Homocysteine

    Homocysteine is a sulphur containing amino acid and plays an important role in metabolic pathways usually in methionine and folate cycle .

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  • Pertussis Test

    Pertussis is a respiratory tract infection which is caused by the gram-negative coccobacillus Bordetella pertussis.
    Pertussis also known as whooping cough is transmitted by droplet transfer (usually from sneezing / coughing) from an infected person.

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  • D-Dimer

    D-Dimer is a degradation product of cross linked (by factor XIII) fibrin which reflects the activation of hemostatic system.
    D-Dimer is ordered when person has symptoms of DVT( Deep vein thrombosis ), such as:
    • Leg pain or tenderness, usually in one leg
    • Leg swelling
    • Leg discolora

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  • Carboxyhemoglobin

    Carboxyhemoglobin is a complex of carbon monoxide that forms in red blood cells when carbon monoxide is inhaled. COHb is useful in monitoring the treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning.

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  • Bacterial Wound Culture

    Bacterial wound cultures are used to determine the presence of infection in wounds and identify the bacteria causing the infection.

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  • Desipramine

    Desipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) and is used primarily in depression that is resistant to more commonly used antidepressants such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

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  • ACTH Stimulation test

    ACTH is a hormone produced in the anterior pituitary gland which stimulates the adrenal glands to release cortisol ,DHEAS( dehydroepiandrosterone ) and aldosterone .
    ACTH is used to diagnose –
    • Primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency
    • Addison

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  • Serum Sodium Test

    Reference Range

    Sodium accounts for approximately 95% of the osmotically active substances in the extracellular compartment
    The reference range for serum sodium is 135-145 mmol/L.

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  • CA 15-3

    CA 15-3 test is widely used as serum marker in breast cancer
    Cancer Antigen 15-3 is a blood test .It is useful in monitoring advanced breast cancer. CA 15-3 is a tumor marker .CA 15-3 is a protein which is a normal product of breast tissue

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  • Diagnostic Influenza Test

    Influenza A /Influenza B antibody tests
    Influenza antibody test are blood test performed to detect the body’s immune response to an influenza infection.

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  • CA 125 Tumor marker

    CA 125 Cancer antigen 125 is a protein present on surface of many ovarian cancer cells.
    CA -125 test measures the amount of protein in the blood.CA -125 is used as a tumor marker.
    CA-125 test is done for &ndash

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  • Calcitonin

    Calcitonin is a hormone produced in humans by parafollicular cells of the thyroid which participates in calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Calcitonin regulates calcium levels in the body and is involved in bone b

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  • Copper – 24hour Urine Copper

    Copper testing is mainly done for diagnosing Wilson disease .A total blood copper test is done along with ceruloplasmin level .If any of these test are abnormal , it is followed by a 24 hour urine copper test .

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  • Albumin

    Albumin is a blood plasma protein which is synthesized in liver .Albumin constitutes about two-third of total protein content.
    Albumin is soluble in water, precipitated by acid and coagulated by heat.
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  • Serum Ferritin Level

    Ferritin blood test checks the amount of ferritin in the blood .Ferritin is a protein in the body which binds to iron.
    Ferritin is found in liver, spleen, skeletal muscles and bone marrow.
    Ferritin amount

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  • Blood sugar / Fasting blood sugar

    Glucose is the primary energy source for body’s cells and the only energy source for brain and nervous system.
    Blood glucose test measures the amount of a sugar called glucose in blood sampl

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  • Gram Stain

    Gram stain is one of common stain used in microbiology for identifying bacteria.
    Gram staining is a method of differentiating between bacterial species into –Gram positive and Gram negative
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  • 11 Deoxycortisol / Cortodoxone

    doxone is a steroid that can be oxygenated to cortisol ( hydrocortisone )

    Reference range –
    People aged 18 yrs or young - less than 344ng/dL
    Adults of age above 18 yr

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  • Amylase

    Amylase blood test is used to diagnose acute and chronic pancreatitis. Amylase test are also used to monitor treatment of cancers involving pancreas. 
    Blood amyla

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  • Chloride

    Chloride is an anion which maintains the normal acid- base balance. It mainly exists as sodium chloride or hydrochloric acid. 
    Hyperchloremia – indicates high levels of serum chloride
    Hypochlo

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  • Hematocrit

    Hematocrit blood test determines the red blood cells proportion in blood. The hematocrit records as the percentage of red blood cells volume in blood sample .Blood sample is composed of red blood cells and whit

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  • Growth Hormone (GH )

    Growth hormone in adults is needed to maintain the proper amounts of body fat, muscle and bones. In children GH is needed for normal growth .

    Reference range
    Newborn: >20 ng

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  • Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1(PAI-1)

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor -1 (PAI -1) is a glycoprotein which is synthesized in endothelial cells, hepatocytes and adipocytes .
    PAI -1 circulates in the blood in both active and latent form.
    PAI is the m

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  • Plasminogen

    Plasminogen is a glycoprotein which is synthesized in the liver , circulating in the blood .Plasminogen is the precursor of plasma .

    Reference range –
    The reference ranges for pl

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  • Vitamin E


    Vitamin E is for treating and preventing diseases of heart and blood vessels –hardening of arteries, heart attack, chest pain and high blood pressure.
    Vi

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  • Vitamin K / Phylloquinone


    Vitamin K is a fat –soluble vitamin which plays a great role in production of coagulation proteins.

    Vitamin k exists in 3 forms –
    Vitamin K1 – natural form found in green leafy

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  • Vitamin C / Ascorbic acid


    Description -

    Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) is water –soluble vitamin.
    Vitamin C is required for collagen synthesis and protein metabolism.
    Vitamin C is a str

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  • Urine Sodium


    Sodium is a mineral and electrolyte .Sodium keeps the water and electrolyte balance of the body.
    Sodium is found in blood and lymph fluid .Levels of sodium is controlled by hormone aldosterone made by adrenal glands.
    Sodium is

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  • Vitamin B1/Thiamine

    Description –
    Vitamin B1( Thiamine )is a water –soluble vitamin and is important in breakdown of carbohydrates from foods into products needed by body .
    Vitamin B1 is involved in functioning of –nervous system, muscular functioning, carbohydrate metabolism, and production of hydrochloric a

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  • Lipase

    Lipase is produced by liver, intestine, stomach, tongue and many others.
    Lipase test measures the amount of lipase enzyme in blood sample .A high amount of lipase is found in blood when pancreas is damaged

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  • Prothrombin Time PT

    Prothrombin time is a blood test which measures how much time blood takes to clot
    Prothrombin time is used to check the bleeding problems.Prothrombin ( factor II ) is on eof the clotting factors made by liver

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  • Urine Specific Gravity

    Urine specific gravity is the measure of concentration of solutes in the urine .Urine specific gravity measurement is a part of routine urinalysis.

    Reference range -
    The

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  • Skin allergy test /Patch test

    Skin allergy test are used to find out substance which can causes allergy in person.
    Allergy testing involves a – skin / blood test for finding out the substance ( allergen ) which can trigger an allergic res

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  • Blood glucose test


    The blood test that is used to measure the amount of glucose in blood is called blood glucose test. This test helps in screening for prediabetes or diabet

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  • Blood Uric acid


    The blood uric acid test measures the amount of uric acid in blood.
    Uric acid is the breakdown product  of purines, which is commonly found in foods like anchovies, dried beans, peas and beer e

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  • Pulmonary function test


    Pulmonary function tests are defined as collection of no. of tests which help us to analyze the working capacity of lungs. In these test there is measurement that how well the lungs take air in and rele

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  • Pap Smear test


    A pap smear is a screening test for cervical cancer. It‘s a microscopic examination of cells scraped from the opening of the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that opens at th

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  • Testosterone


    Testosterone is a sex hormone present in testis in males and ovaries in females ,which plays a key role in development of male reproductive tissue such as testis and prostrate and promoting male sexual se

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  • Bone Marrow Density Test


    Bone marrow density is a diagnostic tool which helps to measure the strength of bones by measuring the amount of mineral matter (especially calcium) per square centimeter of bones. Bone marrow density

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  • Lipid Profile


    Lipid profile is done for testing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

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  • Progesterone -Hormone


    In women:

    A progesterone test measures the amount of the hormone level in the blood. The progesterone is a female hormone produced by ovaries during release of a mature egg from

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  • Androgen -Hormone


    Androgens also known as androgenic hormone or testoid are group of chemicals released by gonads (testes, ovaries) and adrenal glands which control many sexual functions. They are the type of steroid hormones whi

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  • Barium Swallow


    What is it?


    A barium swallow is a radiographic (X-ray) examination of the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract especially the pharynx, the esophagus, stomach and small intestine.
    Gen

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  • Stool Guaiac Test


    Guaiac smear test, fecal occult blood test-guaiac smear, stool occult blood test-guaiac smear.

    What is it?
    A fecal occult blood test checks stool sample for traces of blood

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  • Kidney Function Test


    Kidneys are two-bean-shaped organs located in the middle of your back, just below your ribcage. Urine flows to your bladder through tubes called ureters; bladder stores t

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  • Liver Function Test


    Liver function test helps in diagnosing and monitoring liver diseases and liver damage. Blood test for liver function measures enzyme and prote

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  • ESR ( erythrocyte sedimentation rate)


    Indicates acute and chronic inflammation such as – infections, cancer and auto-immune disease.

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  • Rheumatoid Factor


    The rheumatoid factor (RF) test is primarily used to help diagnose rheumatoid arthritis or Sjogren syndrome .
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  • Blood Urea Nitrogen


    A blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test measures the amount of nitrogen in your blood that comes from the waste product urea. Urea is made in liver and passed out of body in t

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  • RBC test


    The number, shape, size and appearance of the RBCs and the amount of hemoglobin they contain in them are measured. The test that measures th

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  • WBC test


    The normal ranges of WBC count is:
    4500-10,000 WBC/microliter.

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  • Thyroid Function Test


    The main hormones produced by the thyroid are thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), collectively called the thyroid hormones. 

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  • CRP ( C- reactive protein )

    A C-reactive protein (CRP) test is a blood test.
    CRP measures the amount of a protein called C-reactive protein in blood.

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  • Throat Culture


    A throat culture is a laboratory diagnostic test for finding a bacterial or fungal infection in the throat. Sample is done by throat swab. A throat culture shows the d

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  • Serum Cortisol

    Serum cortisol is the main adrenal glucocorticoid and plays a great role in glucose metabolism . Adrenal cortisol production is regulated by adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH ) which is synthesized by pituitary gland in response to hypothalamic corticotrophin –releasing hormone Serum cortisol test helps in determining the functioning of adrenal and pituitary glands Reference range - […]

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  • Imipramine Level

    Imipramine is an anti-depressant used for treating depression, panic attacks, enuresis. Imipramine is an anti-cholinergic . Reference Range • Reference range – Imipramine is 100-300 ng/mL Interpretation • Imipramine testing is used to measure the concentration of the drug in a patient’s blood. Collection • Container –Red top tube • Specimen: Serum &bul

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  • Dopamine

    Dopamine is a neurotransmitter which helps in the transmission of signals in the brain and other vital organs.
    Dopamine is found in humans, animals (both vertebrates and invertebrates)
    Dopamine regulatio

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